Publication: Massive Star Formation via High Accretion Rates and Early Disk-driven Outflows,

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Title Massive Star Formation via High Accretion Rates and Early Disk-driven Outflows,
Authors/Editors* R. Banerjee, R.E. Pudritz
Where published* Ap.J.
How published* Journal
Year* 2007
Volume 660
Pages 479-488
We present an investigation of the massive star formation that results from the gravitational collapse of massive, magnetized molecular cloud cores. We investigate this by means of highly resolved, numerical simulations of initial magnetized Bonnor-Ebert-spheres that undergo collapse and cooling. By comparing three different cases-an isothermal collapse, a collapse with radiative cooling, and a magnetized collapse-we show that massive stars assemble quickly, with mass accretion rates exceeding 10-3 Msolar yr-1. We confirm that the mass accretion during the collapsing phase is much more efficient than predicted by self-similar collapse solutions, i.e., M˙~c3/G. We find that during protostellar assembly, the mass accretion reaches 20-100 times c3/G. Furthermore, we determined the self-consistent structure of the bipolar outflows produced in our three-dimensional magnetized collapse simulations. These outflows produce cavities out of which radiation pressure can be released, thereby reducing the limitations on the final mass of massive stars formed by gravitational collapse. Moreover, we argue that the extraction of angular momentum by disk-threaded magnetic fields and/or by the appearance of bars with spiral arms significantly enhances the mass accretion rate, thereby helping the massive protostar to assemble more quickly.
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