|Note: Some of the information on this page is for our legacy systems only. The page is scheduled for an update to make it applicable to Graham.|
- 1 Visualization Stations
- 2 Clusters
SHARCNET also has a collection of remote-desktop machines running CentOS and Fedora. These can be used to run a variety of pre- and post-processing packages that are not a good fit for the cluster environment. They are accessed over the network via VNC. Sessions are not persistent. When you logout or get disconnected, they end.
When switching between CentOS and Fedora environments you need to reset your configuration files because versions of several programs coniguration files differ and may become confused when the environment changes. For instance if the Application Menu pulldown is missing from the vdi-centos6 desktop after running a fedora23 desktop. To fix this problem run the following command on any of the clusters:
rm -fr ~/.config ~/.local ~/.cache ~/.gconf ~/.gnome2
The clipboard is only shared if you are running a VNC client that supports this (TigerVNC). The program that handles this on the remote end is called vncconfig. It is automatically started in -nowin mode. To change the options you will have to kill it and then restart it in none -nowin mode
killall vncconfig vncconfig
Web Browser (noVNC)
noVNC is a HTML5 based VNC client that runs inside a web browser. It enables connecting to any sharcnet visualization workstation remotely from any modern browser (one that supports HTML5). To do so simply goto the sharcnet systems page, then scroll down to the Visualization Systems table, next locate the machine you want to connect with such as vdi-centos6 and lastly click the BLUE terminal icon beside it. The remote desktop login screen should appear in your browser. If however the chosen viz machine is under heavy load, you may receive a timeout message instead of connecting successfully and should consider trying later or connecting to a different machine. It maybe necessary to try 3x before a successful connection is established. The local VNC client approach does not have this issue.
WARNING! It is not possible to copy/paste text between your workstation desktop and a web browser noVNC session. A workaround is to copy/paste the text into a file located on a global shared filesystem such as home of the noVNC session - then from your workstation desktop connect to a sharcnet system and copy/paste from the remote file to your desktop. A better solution is instead of using no VNC connect instead using a local VNC client as described below where copy/paste actions to the desktop are natively supported.
Local Client (VNC)
The local client provides a slightly faster solution that may integrate better with your system (e.g., pass through certain keystrokes that would otherwise be captured by your browser and do full screen mode better). While any vencrypt enabled VNC viewer should work, we have experienced difficulties with many of them and therefore recommend the following three.
Also note that connecting to the visualization stations via the local clients should be done to the <station>.user.sharcnet.ca address (e.g., viz4-uwo.user.sharcnet.ca) and not that standard <station>.sharcnet.ca address or else your client will not be able to properly verify the authenticity of the remote machine.
TigerVNC (Windows, MacOS, Fedora, newer Unbuntu/Debian, Gentoo)
For MacOS and Windows, tigervnc viewer can be downloaded from the tigervnc GitHub site. Scroll down to the latest release tag, follow the link to the bintray site, and download either the TigerVNC dmg file for MacOS or the vncviewer exe file for Windows. For best results update to the latest version periodically.
For Fedora, the tigervnc client is available in the default packages
sudo yum install tigervnc
For newer Ubuntu/Debian:
sudo apt-get install tigervnc-viewer
Finally, for Gentoo emerge tigervnc after settings any desired USE flags:
# Relevant USE flags if desired, e.g., in /etc/portage/package.use: # net-misc/tigervnc dri3 drm gnutls java nls opengl pam xinerama xorgmodule emerge -av net-misc/tigervnc
You will need at least version 1.1 or later (for vencrypt support). If you have an older version than this, you will have to update to a newer version of your operating system or compile it by hand. (For older versions of Ubuntu/Debian see the directions below in the next section.)
Although strictly not required, it is a good idea to provide tigervnc with a link to the system certifications so it can verify it is really connecting to our visualization stations. On Fedora this can be done as follows (removing ~/.vnc resets the TigerVNC configuration and is required for this to work)
rm -fr ~/.vnc mkdir -p ~/.vnc ln -s /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt ~/.vnc/x509_ca.pem
where removing ~/.vnc resets the TigerVNC configuration and is required for this to work.
Once tigervnc is installed on your computer, connect to a SHARCNET viz station by simply clicking the TigerVNC Viewer application menu entry located typically under Applications->Internet. Once the Connection Details popup appears type vdi-centos.user.sharcnet.ca in the VNC server: field. The hostname should be saved for next time but if not click the "Save As" button in the popup preferences and save it as a loadable configuration for the next time you start the viewer. If you cannot locate tigerVNC Viewer in your application menu on linux try opening a terminal and running the following command:
where vdi-centos6 could be replaced with viz10-uwo, viz11-uwo, vdi-fedora23 etc.
To put the vncviewer client window into full screen mode, there are three options to try:
1) Click the maximize/minimize button in the upper right hand corner of the client 2) Press the F8 key to open a popup window and tick/untick the Full screen check box 3) If neither 2 or 3 work run the snxrandr command and specify a setting such as 1280x800
gvncviewer (older Ubuntu/Debian)
Older Ubuntu and Debian do not package tigervnc by default, so we instead recommend installing the gvncviewer application
apt-get install gvncviewer
The gvncviewer program will not prompt you for connecting to machines it cannot verify (it just quits), so it is necessary to provide it with a link to the system certificates
mkdir -p ~/.pki/CA ln -s /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt ~/.pki/CA/cacert.pem
Connecting to a viz stations is then done by running
where <station> is substituted with the appropriate viz station name.
Some software on SHARCNET system requires you to establish a graphical connection, so you can interact with it through a graphical user interface (GUI).
If such a graphical connection is not enabled, the program which requires it (in this example DDT), will generate an error message:
[ppomorsk@orc-login2:~] module load ddt [ppomorsk@orc-login2:~] ddt ddt: cannot connect to X server [ppomorsk@orc-login2:~]
Resolving this issue requires that a graphical connection is set up. There is a number of ways to do this.
SSH (Linux and Mac)
Add the -X (or for a very few applications the less secure -Y) flag to your ssh command to enable X11 forwarding (from the cluster to your computer)
ssh -X <user>@<cluster>
MobaXterm is a combined ssh, sftp, and built-in X11 server from Windows. It is available as a free download from mobaxterm.mobatek.net. A convenient tutorial on its use is given on that page. To enable a graphical connection, make sure the box "X11-Forwarding" is checked.
NOTE: once you login to a SHARCNET system, if you want to login into a development node, use the -Y flag in your ssh command to keep the graphical connection enabled.
Example: after you are logged in on orca, to get to the development node 1 with graphical connection enabled, add the -Y flag to your ssh command:
[ppomorsk@orc-login2:~] ssh -Y orc-dev1
Xming Software (Windows)
Xming is an X11 server that can be run on your local Windows desktop computer - it will allow you to run graphical applications from remote Unix and Linux computers such as the SHARCNET clusters, when used in combination with an SSH client.
Where to get Xming
Xming is available from http://www.straightrunning.com/XmingNotes/, where a variety of versions can be downloaded. For a fee, you can download the latest version, or a slightly older, but still functional version is avaliable for free. Of the two free versions, one is the basic "Xming" server, and the second, "Xming-mesa", allows you to make use of 3D graphics if they are used by the remote application. This tutorial will work under the assumption that you have downloaded the free version, labeled "Xming-mesa", since it will do all of the work that the basic Xming program does, and in situations where a program requires 3D graphics support, it is better to have it already, rather than finding out when your program will not run.
How to Install and Use Xming
To install Xming, first download the Xming-mesa public domain from The Website, and run it. For the majority of the setup options, you should accept the default, and just click "Next >". When asked to Select Components, make sure "Normal PuTTY Link SSH client" is selected, and turn on all checkboxes, as below:
Once this has been completed, you can click "Next" until you reach the "Setup" window, and turn on the desktop icons for Xming and XLaunch if you wish. After this, click "Next" until done, and click the final "Install" button to complete the installation.
The first time you install Xming, you may also be asked for additional configuration options for the server. In each of these conditions, the default setting is the best choice for using Xming with the SHARCNET clusters.
Right after installation, the Xming server will already be running, but if you log out or reboot your computer, you will need to click the "Xming" icon to start it up again if you wish to use it. If you chose not to install the desktop icon, the server can also be found in the Programs menu under "Xming". To verify that Xming is installed, check the taskbar of your computer to see if the "X" logo is present, like this:
PuTTY SSH client
Next, if you do not already have a copy of the PuTTY SSH client, you can get one from here - download the putty.exe program file, and place it on your desktop for easy access, no installation is needed for this program. Once it is downloaded, run it, and you will be presented with the configuration screen. For this example, we will connect to the system rainbow.sharcnet.ca, but the same instructions can be used for any of the clusters, simply by changing the Host Name you use.
In the first configuration screen, we need to do a few things. We enter our Host Name (rainbow.sharcnet.ca) and a name for our session (Rainbow X11) and then click "Save" - we should then see what is shown below:
Next, click "X11" in the category menu on the left. (It should be near the bottom) and turn on the checkbox beside "Enable X11 forwarding", like this:
Last, return to the "Session" category at the very top of the menu on the left, and click the "Save" button again to save the X11 settings. Now the setup is complete, and you can click "Open" to log in. The next time you start PuTTY, all of the settings should be in place already if you double click the "Rainbow X11" entry in the Saved Sessions list. You can now log into the cluster using your regular SHARCNET username and password.
Now that everything is installed, the next time you come to your computer to use X11 programs on SHARCNET, you will only need to follow three steps:
- Start Xming (if the Xming logo is not in the tool tray, double click the Xming icon to start it.)
- Start PuTTY
- Double-click the session you wish to log into in PuTTY and log in with your username and password.
Once you are logged into the cluster, if you wish to test to verify that X11 is working, type the command "xlogo" and hit enter. A small window that looks like this should appear somewhere on your screen:
You can now run any program that requires X11 to function while on the clusters.