
The SingleStep Soot Formation Model
In the singlestep Khan and Greeves model [ 179], FLUENT solves a single transport equation for the soot mass fraction:
where  
= soot mass fraction  
= turbulent Prandtl number for soot transport  
= net rate of soot generation (kg/m s) 
, the net rate of soot generation, is the balance of soot formation, , and soot combustion, :
(20.32) 
The rate of soot formation is given by a simple empirical rate expression:
where  
= soot formation constant (kg/Nms)  
= fuel partial pressure (Pa)  
= equivalence ratio  
= equivalence ratio exponent  
= activation temperature (K) 
The rate of soot combustion is the minimum of two rate expressions [ 229]:
The two rates are computed as
and
where  
= constant in the Magnussen model  
,  = mass fractions of oxidizer and fuel  
,  = mass stoichiometries for soot and fuel combustion 
The default constants for the singlestep model are valid for a wide range of hydrocarbon fuels.
The TwoStep Soot Formation Model
The twostep Tesner model [ 373] predicts the generation of radical nuclei and then computes the formation of soot on these nuclei. FLUENT thus solves transport equations for two scalar quantities: the soot mass fraction (Equation 20.31) and the normalized radical nuclei concentration:
where  
= normalized radical nuclei concentration (particles /kg)  
= turbulent Prandtl number for nuclei transport  
= normalized net rate of nuclei generation (particles /m s) 
In these transport equations, the rates of nuclei and soot generation are the net rates, involving a balance between formation and combustion.
Soot Generation Rate
The twostep model computes the net rate of soot generation, , in the same way as the singlestep model, as a balance of soot formation and soot combustion:
(20.38) 
In the twostep model, however, the rate of soot formation, , depends on the concentration of radical nuclei, :
where  
= mean mass of soot particle (kg/particle)  
= concentration of soot particles (particles/m )  
= radical nuclei concentration = (particles/m )  
= empirical constant (s )  
= empirical constant (m /particles) 
The rate of soot combustion, , is computed in the same way as for the singlestep model, using Equations 20.34 20.36.
The default constants for the twostep model are for combustion of acetylene (C H ). According to Ahmad et al. [ 5], these values should be modified for other fuels, since the sooting characteristics of acetylene are known to be different from those of saturated hydrocarbon fuels.
Nuclei Generation Rate
The net rate of nuclei generation in the twostep model is given by the balance of the nuclei formation rate and the nuclei combustion rate:
(20.310) 
where  
= rate of nuclei formation (particles /m s)  
= rate of nuclei combustion (particles /m s) 
The rate of nuclei formation, , depends on a spontaneous formation and branching process, described by
where  
= normalized nuclei concentration ( )  
=  
= preexponential rate constant (particles/kgs)  
= fuel concentration (kg/m )  
= linear branching termination coefficient (s )  
= linear termination on soot particles (m /particles) 
Note that the branching term, , in Equation 20.311 is included only when the kinetic rate, , is greater than the limiting formation rate (10 particles/m s, by default).
The rate of nuclei combustion is assumed to be proportional to the rate of soot combustion:
(20.313) 
where the soot combustion rate, , is given by Equation 20.34.
The Effect of Soot on the Radiation Absorption Coefficient
A description of the modeling of sootradiation interaction is provided in Section 13.3.8.