
For unsteady composition PDF transport simulations, a fractional step scheme is employed where the PDF particles are advanced over the time step, and then the flow is advanced over the time step. Unlike steadystate simulations, composition statistics are not averaged over iterations, and to reduce statistical error you should increase the number of particles per cell in the Solution Monitors panel.
For low speed flows, the thermochemistry couples to the flow through density. Statistical errors in the calculation of density may cause convergence difficulties between time step iterations. If you experience this, increase the number of PDF particles per cell, or decrease the density underrelaxation.