## 7.19.8 Solution Strategies for Porous Media

In general, you can use the standard solution procedures and solution parameter settings when your FLUENT model includes porous media. You may find, however, that the rate of convergence slows when you define a porous region through which the pressure drop is relatively large in the flow direction (e.g., the permeability, , is low or the inertial factor, , is large). This slow convergence can occur because the porous media pressure drop appears as a momentum source term--yielding a loss of diagonal dominance--in the matrix of equations solved. The best remedy for poor convergence of a problem involving a porous medium is to supply a good initial guess for the pressure drop across the medium. You can supply this guess by patching a value for the pressure in the fluid cells upstream and/or downstream of the medium, as described in Section  25.14.2. It is important to recall, when patching the pressure, that the pressures you input should be defined as the gauge pressures used by the solver (i.e., relative to the operating pressure defined in the Operating Conditions panel).

Another possible way to deal with poor convergence is to temporarily disable the porous media model (by turning off the Porous Zone option in the Fluid panel) and obtain an initial flow field without the effect of the porous region. With the porous media model turned off, FLUENT will treat the porous zone as a fluid zone and calculate the flow field accordingly. Once an initial solution is obtained, or the calculation is proceeding steadily to convergence, you can enable the porous media model and continue the calculation with the porous region included. (This method is not recommended for porous media with high resistance.)

Simulations involving highly anisotropic porous media may, at times, pose convergence troubles. You can address these issues by limiting the anisotropy of the porous media coefficients ( and ) to two or three orders of magnitude. Even if the medium's resistance in one direction is infinite, you do not need to set the resistance in that direction to be greater than 1000 times the resistance in the primary flow direction.

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