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32.3.15 Define/Materials...

The Define/Materials... menu item opens the Materials panel.



Materials Panel


The Materials panel is used to create and modify materials. Materials can be downloaded from the global database or defined locally. See Chapter  8 for details about defining material properties. Section  8.1.2 describes how to use the Materials panel.

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Controls

Name   shows the name of the material. If you edit this field, the new name will take effect when you click on Change/Create.

Chemical Formula   displays the chemical formula for the material. You should generally not edit this field unless you are creating a material from scratch.

Material Type   is a drop-down list containing all of the available material types. By default, fluid and solid will be the only choices. If you are modeling species transport/combustion, mixture will also be available. For problems in which you have defined discrete-phase injections, inert-particle, droplet-particle, and/or combusting-particle will also appear.

Fluent Fluid Materials   allows you to choose the fluid material for which you want to modify properties. This option is available when fluid is selected in the Material Type drop-down list.

Fluent Solid Materials   allows you to choose the solid material for which you want to modify properties. This option is available when solid is selected in the Material Type drop-down list.

Fluent Mixture Materials   allows you to choose the mixture material for which you want to modify properties. This option is available when mixture is selected in the Material Type drop-down list.

Fluent Droplet Particle Materials   allows you to choose the droplet-particle for which you want to modify properties. This option is available when droplet-particle is selected in the Material Type drop-down list.

Order Materials By   allows you to order the materials in the Materials list alphabetically by Name or alphabetically by Chemical Formula.

Fluent Database...   opens the Fluent Database Materials panel, from where you can copy materials from the global database into the current solver.

User-Defined Database...   opens the Open Database panel, where you can specify the user-defined database to be used.

Properties   contains input fields for the material properties that are required for the active physical models.

Density   sets the material density. You may set a constant value, or select one of the other methods from the drop-down list above the real number field. See Section  8.3 for instructions on setting density.

Cp   sets the constant-pressure specific heat of the material. You may set a constant value, or select one of the other methods from the drop-down list above the real number field. See Section  8.7 for instructions on setting specific heat.

Thermal Conductivity   sets the thermal conductivity of the material. You may set a constant value, or select one of the other methods from the drop-down list above the real number field. See Section  8.5 for instructions on setting thermal conductivity.

Viscosity   sets the viscosity of the material. You may set a constant value, or select one of the other methods from the drop-down list above the real number field. See Section  8.4 for instructions on setting viscosity.

Molecular Weight   sets the molecular weight of the material. It is used to derive the gas constant of the material.

Standard State Enthalpy   specifies the formation enthalpy of a fluid material for a reacting flow. See Section  8.10 for details.

Standard State Entropy   specifies the standard state entropy of a fluid material for a reacting flow. This input is used only if the fluid material is involved in a reversible reaction. See Section  8.11 for details.

Reference Temperature   specifies the reference temperature for the Heat of Formation.

L-J Characteristic Length   specifies the kinetic theory parameter $\sigma$ for a fluid material. See Section  8.13 for details.

L-J Energy Parameter   specifies the kinetic theory parameter $\epsilon/k$ for a fluid material. See Section  8.13 for details.

Absorption Coefficient   specifies the absorption coefficient $a$ for radiation heat transfer. See Section  8.8 for details. If you choose the wsggm-user-specified option from the drop-down list next to Absorption Coefficient, the WSGGM User Specified panel will open.

Scattering Coefficient   specifies the scattering coefficient $\sigma_s$ for radiation heat transfer (only for the P-1, Rosseland, or DO radiation model). See Section  8.8 for details.

Scattering Phase Function   specifies an isotropic (by default) or linear-anisotropic scattering function. If you are using the DO model, delta-eddington and user-defined scattering functions are also available. See Section  8.8 for details. If you choose delta-eddington, the Delta-Eddington Scattering Function panel will open.

Refractive Index   specifies the refractive index for the material. It is used only when semi-transparent media are modeled with the DO radiation model.

Mixture Species   specifies the names of the species that comprise a mixture material. To check or modify these names, click on the Edit... button to open the Species panel. This property appears only for mixture materials.

Reaction   displays the reaction mechanism being used when you are modeling finite-rate reactions. finite-rate appears if Laminar Finite-Rate or EDC is selected in the Species Model panel, eddy-dissipation appears if Eddy-Dissipation is selected, and finite-rate/eddy-dissipation appears if Finite-Rate/Eddy-Dissipation is selected.

Click Edit... to open the Reactions panel.

Mechanism   allows you to enable different reactions selectively in different geometrical zones. Click the Edit button to open the Reaction Mechanisms panel. See Section  14.1.4 for details.

Mass Diffusivity   contains a drop-down list of available methods for specifying the diffusion coefficients for the species in a mixture material. If you select constant-dilute-appx, you will enter a constant value in the field below. If you select dilute-approx or multicomponent, the Mass Diffusion Coefficients panel will open, and you can specify the coefficients there. If you select kinetic-theory, you will need to specify the kinetic theory parameters for the individual fluid materials (species) that comprise the mixture. See Section  8.9 for details about specifying mass diffusivity.

Thermal Diffusion Coefficient   contains a drop-down list of available methods for specifying the thermal diffusion coefficients for the species in a mixture material. If you select kinetic-theory, you will need to specify the kinetic theory parameters for the individual fluid materials (species) that comprise the mixture. If you select specified, the Thermal Diffusion Coefficients panel will open, and you can specify the coefficients there. See Section  8.9.4 for details about specifying thermal diffusion coefficients.

Density of Unburnt Reactants   sets the density ( $\rho_u$ in Equation  16.2-24) of the unburnt products.

Temperature of Unburnt Reactants   sets the temperature ( $T_u$ in Equation  16.2-24) of the unburnt products.

Adiabatic Temperature of Burnt Products   (only for adiabatic premixed combustion models) specifies the value of the burnt products under adiabatic conditions, $T_{\rm ad}$ in Equation  16.2-21.

Molecular Heat Transfer Coefficient   specifies the molecular heat transfer coefficient ( $\alpha$ in Equation  16.2-4) for use with the premixed combustion model. See Chapter  16 for details.

Laminar Flame Speed   specifies the value of $U_l$ in Equation  16.2-4.

Critical Rate of Strain   specifies the value of $g_{\rm cr}$ in Equation  16.2-15.

Heat of Combustion   (only for non-adiabatic premixed combustion models) specifies the value of $H_{\rm comb}$ in Equation  16.2-23.

Unburnt Fuel Mass Fraction   (only for non-adiabatic premixed combustion models) specifies the value of $Ystar{\rm fuel}$ in Equation  16.2-23.

Thermal Expansion Coefficient   specifies the thermal expansion coefficient ( $\beta$ in Equation  13.2-18) for use with the Boussinesq approximation.
See Section  13.2.5 for details.

Droplet Surface Tension   specifies the value of the droplet surface tension ( $\sigma$ in Equation  22.8-19).

Latent Heat   is the latent heat of vaporization, $h_{\rm fg}$, required for phase change from an evaporating liquid droplet or for the evolution of volatiles from a combusting particle. See Section  22.14 for details.

Thermophoretic Coefficient   specifies the thermophoretic coefficient ( $D_{T,p}$ in Equation  22.2-14), and appears when the thermophoretic force is included in the discrete phase calculation.

Vaporization Temperature   is the temperature, $T_{\rm vap}$, at which the calculation of vaporization from a liquid droplet or devolatilization from a combusting particle is initiated by FLUENT. See Section  22.14 for details.

Boiling Point   is the temperature, $T_{\rm bp}$, at which the calculation of the boiling rate equation is initiated by FLUENT. See Section  22.14 for details.

Volatile Component Fraction   ( $f_{v0}$) is the fraction of a droplet particle that may vaporize via Laws 2 and/or 3 (Sections  22.9.2). For combusting particles, it is the fraction of volatiles that may be evolved via Law 4 (Section  22.9.2). See Section  22.14 for details.

Binary Diffusivity   is the mass diffusion coefficient, $D_{i,m}$, used in the vaporization law, Law 2. This input is also used to define the mass diffusion of the oxidizing species to the surface of a combusting particle, $D_{i,m}$. See Section  22.14 for details.

Saturation Vapor Pressure   is the saturated vapor pressure, $P_{\rm sat}$, defined as a function of temperature, which is used in the vaporization law, Law 2. See Section  22.14 for details.

Heat of Pyrolysis   is the heat of the instantaneous pyrolysis reaction, $h_{\rm pyrol}$, that the evaporating/boiling species may undergo when released to the continuous phase. The heat of pyrolysis should be input as a positive number for exothermic reaction and as a negative number for endothermic reaction. The default value of zero implies that the heat of pyrolysis is not considered. See Section  22.14 for details.

Degrees of Freedom   specifies the kinetic theory parameter $f$, which is the number of nodes of energy storage. This parameter is required only if you are defining specific heat via kinetic theory. See Section  8.13 for details.

Particle Emissivity   is the emissivity of particles in your model, $\epsilon_p$, used to compute radiation heat transfer to the particles when the P-1 or DO radiation model is active and particle radiation interaction is enabled in the Discrete Phase Model panel. See Section  22.14 for details.

Particle Scattering Factor   is the scattering factor, $f$, due to particles in the P-1 or DO radiation model. Note that this property will appear only if particle radiation interaction is enabled in the Discrete Phase Model panel. See Section  22.14 for details.

Swelling Coefficient   is the coefficient, $C_{\rm sw}$, which governs the swelling of the coal particle during the devolatilization law, Law 4. A swelling coefficient of unity (the default) implies that the coal particle stays at constant diameter during the devolatilization process. See Section  22.14 for details.

Burnout Stoichiometric Ratio   is the stoichiometric requirement, $S_b$, for the burnout reaction, in terms of mass of oxidant per mass of char in the particle. See Section  22.14 for details.

Combustible Fraction   is the mass fraction of char, $f_{\rm comb}$, in the coal particle, i.e., the fraction of the initial combusting particle that will react in the surface reaction, Law 5. See Section  22.14 for details.

React. Heat Fraction Absorbed by Solid   is the parameter $f_h$, which controls the distribution of the heat of reaction between the particle and the continuous phase. The default value of zero implies that the entire heat of reaction is released to the continuous phase. See Section  22.14 for details.

Heat of Reaction for Burnout   is the heat released by the surface char combustion reaction, Law 5. This parameter is input in terms of heat release (e.g., Joules) per unit mass of char consumed in the surface reaction. See Section  22.14 for details.

Devolatilization Model   defines which version of the devolatilization model, Law 4, is being used. If you want to use the default constant rate devolatilization model, retain the selection of constant in the drop-down list to the right of Devolatilization Model and input the rate constant $A_0$ in the field below the list.

Choose single-rate, two-competing-rates, or cpd-model in the drop-down list to activate one of the optional devolatilization models (the single kinetic rate model, two kinetic rates model, or CPD model, as described in Section  22.9.2).

When the single kinetic rate model ( single-rate) is selected, the Single Rate Devolatilization panel will appear; when the two competing rates model ( two-competing-rates) is selected, the Two Competing Rates Model panel will appear; and when the CPD model ( cpd-model) is selected, the CPD Model panel will appear.

See Section  22.14 for details.

Combustion Model   defines which version of the surface char combustion law (Law 5) is being used. If you want to use the default diffusion-limited rate model, retain the selection of diffusion-limited in the drop-down list. No additional inputs are necessary, because the binary diffusivity defined above will be used in Equation  22.9-73.

To use the kinetics/diffusion-limited rate model for the surface combustion model, select kinetics/diffusion-limited in the drop-down list and enter the parameters in the resulting Kinetics/Diffusion-Limited Combustion Model panel.

To use the intrinsic model for the surface combustion model, select intrinsic-model in the drop-down list and enter the parameters in the resulting Intrinsic Combustion Model panel.

To use the multiple surface reactions model, select multiple-surface-reactions in the drop-down list.

See Section  22.14 for details.

Melting Heat   specifies the latent heat for the melting and solidification model ( $L$ in Equation  24.2-3).

Solidus Temperature   specifies the solidus temperature for the melting and solidification model ( $T_{\rm solidus}$ in Equation  24.2-3).

Liquidus Temperature   specifies the liquidus temperature for the melting and solidification model ( $T_{\rm liquidus}$ in Equation  24.2-3).

Melting Temperature   specifies the melting temperature of pure solvent ( $T_{\rm melt}$ in Equations  24.2-5 and 24.2-6) for the melting and solidification model when species transport has also been enabled. The solvent is the last species material of the mixture material.

Slope of Liquidus Line   specifies the slope of the liquidus surface with respect to the concentration of the solute fluid ( $m_i$ in Equations  24.2-5 and 24.2-6). It is not necessary to specify this value for the solvent. Note that this option is available only for the melting and solidification model when species transport has also been enabled.

Partition Coefficient   specifies the partition coefficient with respect to the concentration of the solute fluid ( $K_i$ in Equations  24.2-5 and 24.2-6). It is not necessary to specify this value for the solvent. Note that this option is available only for the melting and solidification model when species transport has also been enabled.

Diffusion in Solid   specifies the rate of diffusion in the solid. Note that this option is available only for the melting and solidification model when species transport has also been enabled.

UDS Diffusivity   specifies the diffusion coefficient for a user-defined scalar. This material property is available in the Materials panel when you specify one or more user-defined scalars in the User Defined Scalars panel.If you select defined-per-uds, you will need to specify the diffusion coefficient for each user-defined scalar transport equation in the UDS Diffusion Coefficients panel.

When you are viewing the database, additional properties may be displayed. However, after you copy the material to the local area, only the properties with relevance to the current problem will be displayed.

Change/Create   changes the properties of a locally-stored material or creates a new one in the local area. If no material with the specified Name exists locally, FLUENT will create it. If you have modified the material without changing its name, FLUENT will simply update the material with your modifications. If you have assigned a new name to the material and a material with this name already exists locally, an error will be indicated; you must then specify a different name or delete the existing material with that name before trying to save the new material.

Delete   deletes the currently selected material from the local materials list. It has no effect on the global database.



Fluent Database Materials Panel


The Fluent Database Materials panel is opened by clicking on the Fluent Database... button in the Materials panel. In this panel you can view the global (site-wide) material properties database and copy materials from this database to the local materials list in the solver. See Section  8.1.2 for details.

  There are two panels with name Fluent Database Materials. The other panel is opened from the Species Model panel.

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Controls

Fluent Fluid Materials   contains a list of all materials of the selected Material Type that are defined in the database. The name of this list will change depending on the selected material type (e.g., fluid, solid, etc.). You can select one or more of these materials to be copied to the solver.

Material Type   is a drop-down list containing all of the available material types. By default, fluid and solid will be the only choices. If you are modeling species transport/combustion, mixture will also be available. For problems in which you have defined discrete-phase injections, inert-particle, droplet-particle, and/or combusting-particle will also appear.

Order Materials By   allows you to order the materials in the Materials list alphabetically by Name or alphabetically by Chemical Formula.

Properties   contains fields for the material properties that are defined for the selected material. These fields are for informational purposes only; they cannot be edited.

When you are viewing the database, not all properties displayed are relevant to your FLUENT solution. After you copy the material, only properties with relevance to the current physical models will be displayed.

Copy   copies the current material from the global database to the local materials list in the solver.



Open Database Panel


The Open Database panel is opened by clicking on the User-Defined Database button in the Materials panel.

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Controls

Browse...   opens the Select File dialog box where you can select the user-defined database to be used in the current solver session.

Database Name   allows to enter the path and name of a new database. If you select an existing database, this filed displays the path and name of the selected database.



User-Defined Database Materials Panel


The User-Defined Database Materials panel is opened by clicking OK in the Open Database panel. In this panel you can view the user-defined material properties database and copy materials from this database to the local materials list in the solver. See Section  8.1.4 for details.

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User-Defined Materials   contains a list of all materials of the selected Material Type that are defined in the database. The name of this list will change depending on the selected material type (e.g., User-Defined Fluid Materials, User-Defined Solid Materials, etc.). You can select one or more of these materials to copy to your local list or edit their properties.

Material Type   is a drop-down list containing all of the available material types.

Order Materials By   allows you to order the materials in the User-Defined Materials list alphabetically by Name or alphabetically by Chemical Formula.

Copy Materials From Case...   opens the Copy Case Material panel.

Delete   deletes the selected materials from the database.

Properties   lists the properties and values of the selected material.

New...   opens a blank Material Properties panel where you can define a new material.

Edit...   opens the Material Properties panel displaying the properties of the selected material.

Save   saves the information to the selected database.

Copy   copies the selected material to your local material list. If the material already exists the New Material Name panel (see Section  5) opens



Copy Case Material Panel


This panel is opened by clicking the Copy Materials from Case... button in the User-Defined Database Materials panel.

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Controls

Case Materials   lists all the materials present in your local materials list.

Copy   copies the selected materials to the user-defined database.



Material Properties Panel


This panel is opened by clicking New... button in the User-Defined Database Materials panel. See Section  8.1.3 for details.

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Controls

Name   specifies the name of the material that you are creating.

Formula   (optional) specifies the chemical formula of the material that you are creating.

Types   allows you to select materail type from fluid, solid, inter-particle, droplet-particle, combusting-particle, and mixture materials.

Available Properties   lists properties applicable to the selected material type.

Material Properties   lists properties that you have selected from Available Properties list.

Edit...   opens Edit Property Methods panel where you can edit the parameters that define a property.



Edit Property Methods Panel


This panel is opened by clicking Edit... button in the Material Properties panel. See Section  8.1.3 for details.

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Controls

Property Name   specifies the name of the property that you want to edit.

Available Properties   specifies the methods that can be used to define the selected property.

Material Properties   lists properties that you have selected from Available Properties list.

Edit Properties   allows you to select the property that you want to edit.



New Material Name Panel


This panel is opened by clicking the Copy button in the User-Defined Database Materials panel when a material is already defined with the same name in the Materials panel.

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Controls

New Name   allows you to enter the new name for the material you need to copy.

New Formula   allows you to enter the new formula for the material you need to copy.



Polynomial Profile Panel


The Polynomial Profile panel allows you to define a physical property as a polynomial function of temperature. This panel will open when you select polynomial in the drop-down list next to a physical property in the Materials panel. See Section  8.2.1 for details about the items below.

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Controls

Define   shows the property that is being defined as a function of temperature.

In Terms of   shows the independent variable ( Temperature). The property shown in Define will be defined as a polynomial function of temperature.

Coefficients   is an integer number entry that indicates the number of coefficients to be defined. You can define up to 8 coefficients.

Coefficients   contains real number entries for the number of coefficients set in the Coefficients integer number entry above. The number of entries that are editable will be the same as the number of coefficients you requested.



Piecewise-Linear Profile Panel


The Piecewise-Linear Profile panel allows you to define a physical property as a piecewise-linear function of temperature. This panel will open when you select piecewise-linear in the drop-down list next to a physical property in the Materials panel. See Section  8.2.2 for details about the items below.

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Controls

Define   shows the property that is being defined as a function of temperature.

In Terms of   shows the independent variable ( Temperature). The property shown in Define will be defined as a piecewise-linear function of temperature.

Points   indicates the number of data pairs that will define the piecewise distribution. You can define up to 30 pairs.

Data Points   contains entries for defining the data pairs.

Point   indicates the point for which the data pair ( Temperature, Value) is being defined.

Temperature   is the independent variable.

Value   is the dependent variable (i.e., the property). In the example panel above, Viscosity is the variable being defined, as shown in the Define field.



Piecewise-Polynomial Profile Panel


The Piecewise-Polynomial Profile panel allows you to define a physical property as a piecewise-polynomial function of temperature. This panel will open when you select piecewise-polynomial in the drop-down list next to a physical property in the Materials panel. See Section  8.2.3 for details about the items below.

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Controls

Define   shows the property that is being defined as a function of temperature.

In Terms of   shows the independent variable ( Temperature). The property shown in Define will be defined as a polynomial function of temperature.

Ranges   sets the number of temperature ranges for which you will define polynomial functions. You can define up to 3 ranges.

Range   indicates the temperature range for which you are defining the polynomial function.

Minimum, Maximum   set the minimum and maximum temperatures for the specified Range.

Coefficients   is an integer number entry that indicates the number of coefficients to be defined for the specified Range. You can define up to 8 coefficients.

Coefficients   contains real number entries for the number of coefficients set in the Coefficients integer number entry above. The number of entries that are editable will be the same as the number of coefficients you requested for the specified Range.



User-Defined Functions Panel


The User-Defined Functions panel allows you to choose which user-defined function is to be used to define a material property. This panel will open when you select user-defined in the drop-down list next to one of the Properties in the Materials panel. See the separate UDF Manual for details about user-defined functions.

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The list will contain all available user-defined functions.



Sutherland Law Panel


The Sutherland Law panel allows you to set the coefficients for Sutherland's law for viscosity. This panel will open when you select sutherland in the drop-down list next to Viscosity in the Materials panel. See Section  8.4.2 for details about the items below.

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Controls

Methods   contains options for selecting the Two Coefficient Method or the Three Coefficient Method.

C1, C2   set the coefficients $C_1$ and $C_2$ in Equation  8.4-5 in SI units. These inputs will appear if you select the Two Coefficient Method.

Reference Viscosity   sets the reference viscosity $\mu_0$ in Equation  8.4-6. This input will appear if you select the Three Coefficient Method.

Reference Temperature   sets the reference temperature $T_0$ in Equation  8.4-6. This input will appear if you select the Three Coefficient Method.

Effective Temperature   sets the effective temperature $S$ in Equation  8.4-6. This input will appear if you select the Three Coefficient Method.



Power Law Panel


The Power Law panel allows you to set the coefficients for the power law for viscosity. This panel will open when you select power-law in the drop-down list next to Viscosity in the Materials panel. See Section  8.4.2 for details about the items below.

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Methods   contains options for selecting the Two Coefficient Method or the Three Coefficient Method.

B   sets the coefficient $B$ in Equation  8.4-7 in SI units. This input will appear if you select the Two Coefficient Method.

Reference Viscosity   sets the reference viscosity $\mu_0$ in Equation  8.4-8. This input will appear if you select the Three Coefficient Method.

Reference Temperature   sets the reference temperature $T_0$ in Equation  8.4-8. This input will appear if you select the Three Coefficient Method.

Temperature Exponent   sets the temperature exponent $n$ in Equation  8.4-7 or 8.4-8, depending on your Method selection. If you are using the Two Coefficient Method, this input must be in SI units.



Non-Newtonian Power Law Panel


The Non-Newtonian Power Law panel allows you to set the parameters for the non-Newtonian power law for viscosity. This panel will open when you select non-newtonian-power-law in the drop-down list next to Viscosity in the Materials panel. See Section  8.4.5 for details about the items below.

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Controls

Consistency Index   sets the consistency index $k$ in Equation  8.4-19.

Power-Law Index   sets the power-law index $n$ in Equation  8.4-19.

Reference Temperature   sets the reference temperature $T_0$ in Equation  8.4-19.

Minimum Viscosity Limit, Maximum Viscosity Limit   set the minimum and maximum viscosity limits $\eta_{\rm min}$ and $\eta_{\rm max}$ in Equation  8.4-19.



Carreau Model Panel


The Carreau Model panel allows you to set the parameters for the non-Newtonian Carreau model for viscosity. This panel will open when you select carreau in the drop-down list next to Viscosity in the Materials panel. See Section  8.4.5 for details about the items below.

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Controls

Time Constant, lambda   sets the time constant $\lambda$ in Equation  8.4-20.

Power-Law Index   sets the power-law index $n$ in Equation  8.4-20.

Reference Temperature, T_alpha   sets the reference temperature $T_0$ in Equation  8.4-20.

Zero Shear Viscosity, Infinite Shear Viscosity   set the zero and infinite shear viscosity limits $\eta_0$ and $\eta_\infty$ in Equation  8.4-20.

Activation Energy, alpha   sets the activation energy $\alpha$ in Equation  8.4-21.



Cross Model Panel


The Cross Model panel allows you to set the parameters for the non-Newtonian Cross model for viscosity. This panel will open when you select cross in the drop-down list next to Viscosity in the Materials panel. See Section  8.4.5 for details about the items below.

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Controls

Zero Shear Viscosity   sets the zero shear viscosity limit $\eta_0$ in Equation  8.4-22.

Power-Law Index   sets the power-law index $n$ in Equation  8.4-22.

Time Constant   sets the time constant $\lambda$ in Equation  8.4-22.



Herschel-Bulkley Panel


The Herschel-Bulkley panel allows you to set the parameters for the non-Newtonian Herschel-Bulkley model for viscosity. This panel will open when you select herschel-bulkley in the drop-down list next to Viscosity in the Materials panel. See Section  8.4.5 for details about the items below.

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Controls

Consistency Index   sets the consistency index $k$ in Equation  8.4-24.

Power-Law Index   sets the power-law index $n$ in Equation  8.4-24.

Yield Stress Threshold   sets the yield stress threshold $\tau_0$ in Equation  8.4-24.

Yielding Viscosity   sets the yielding viscosity $\mu_0$ in Equation  8.4-24.



Biaxial Conductivity Panel


The Biaxial Conductivity panel allows you to define a biaxial orthotropic thermal conductivity, which is mainly applicable to solid materials used for the wall shell conduction model.. This panel will open when you select biaxial in the drop-down list next to Thermal Conductivity in the Materials panel. See Section  8.5.5 for details about the items below.

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Controls

Planar Conductivity   specifies the conductivity within the shell (or solid) region.

Transverse Conductivity   specifies the conductivity normal to the surface of the solid region.



Cylindrical Orthotropic Conductivity Panel


The Cylindrical Orthotropic Conductivity panel allows you to define an orthotropic thermal conductivity in cylindrical coordinates. This panel will open when you select cyl-orthotropic in the drop-down list next to Thermal Conductivity in the Materials panel. See Section  8.5.5 for details about the items below.

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Controls

Axis Origin   allows you to specify the origin of the cylindrical coordinate system.

X, Y   specify the X, Y and Z (for three dimensional system) coordinates.

Axis Direction   (3D only) allows you to specify the direction of the axis.

X, Y   specify 1 against the direction of the axis.

Radial Conductivity   specifies the conductivity in the radial direction.

Tangential Conductivity   specifies the conductivity in the tangential direction.

Axial Conductivity   (3D only) specifies the conductivity in the axial direction.



Orthotropic Conductivity Panel


The Orthotropic Conductivity panel allows you to define an orthotropic thermal conductivity for a solid material. This panel will open when you select orthotropic in the drop-down list next to Thermal Conductivity in the Materials panel. See Section  8.5.5 for details about the items below.

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Direction 0 Components, Direction 1 Components   specify the directions $\hat{\bf e}_\xi$ and $\hat{\bf e}_\eta$ in Equation  8.5-11 as X,Y,Z vectors. For 2D cases, only Direction 0 Components will appear.

Conductivity 0, Conductivity 1, Conductivity 2   specify $(k_\xi)$, $(k_\eta)$, and $(k_\zeta)$ in Equation  8.5-11 as constant, polynomial, piecewise-linear, or piecewise-polynomial functions of temperature. For 2D cases, only Conductivity 0 and Conductivity 1 will appear.

Edit...   opens the appropriate panel for input of a temperature-dependent conductivity. (This button will be unavailable if you specify a constant conductivity.)



Anisotropic Conductivity Panel


The Anisotropic Conductivity panel allows you to define a general anisotropic thermal conductivity. This panel will open when you select anisotropic in the drop-down list next to Thermal Conductivity in the Materials panel. See Section  8.5.5 for details about the items below.

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Controls

Matrix Components   specify the components of the matrix $\hat{\bf e}_{ij}$ in Equation  8.5-10.

Conductivity   specifies the value of $k$ in Equation  8.5-10 as a constant, or as a polynomial, piecewise-linear, or piecewise-polynomial function of temperature.

Edit...   opens the appropriate panel for input of a temperature-dependent conductivity. (This button will be unavailable if you specify a constant conductivity.)



Species Panel


The Species panel (opened by clicking on the Edit... button next to Mixture Species in the Materials panel) allows you to define the species that comprise a mixture material. See Section  14.1.4 for details about the items below.

(Note that the Species panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.)

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Controls

Mixture   shows the name of the mixture material for which you are defining the species. This field is not editable.

Available Materials   is a list of all of the materials that are available in local storage. You can choose any of these materials to be a component in the mixture material by selecting it and clicking on the Add button below the Selected Species or Selected Surface Species list. To add a material to the Available Materials list, use the Fluent Database Materials panel to copy the fluid material to local storage.

Selected Species   is a list of all the fluid-phase species in the mixture. To add a material to the list, select it in the Available Materials list and click on the Add button below the Selected Species list. To remove a material, select it in the Selected Species list and click on Remove. See Section  14.1.4 for more information.

Selected Solid Species   is a list of all the solid species in the mixture. To add a material to the list, select it in the Available Materials list and click on the Add button below the Selected Solid Species list. To remove a material, select it in the Selected Solid Species list and click on Remove. See Section  14.1.4 for more information.

Selected Site Species   is a list of all the site species in the mixture. To add a material to the list, select it in the Available Materials list and click on the Add button below the Selected Site Species list. To remove a material, select it in the Selected Site Species list and click on Remove. See Section  14.1.4 for more information.



Reactions Panel


The Reactions panel (opened by clicking on the Edit... button next to Reaction Model in the Materials panel) allows you to define the reactions that comprise a mixture material. See Section  14.1.4 for details about using this panel.

(Note that the Reactions panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.)

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Controls

Mixture   shows the name of the mixture material for which you are defining the species. This field is not editable.

Total Number of Reactions   sets the total number of reactions (fluid-phase reactions and surface reactions occurring at wall boundaries). Use the arrows to change the value, or type in the value and press RETURN.

Reaction Name   contains the name of the reaction.

ID   sets the number of the reaction you want to define. (Again, if you type in the value be sure to press RETURN.)

Reaction Type   contains options that allow you to specify the type of reaction.

Volumetric   specifies, if enabled, that the current reaction is a volumetric reaction.

Wall Surface   specifies, if enabled, that the current reaction is a wall surface reaction.

Particle Surface   specifies, if enabled, that the current reaction is a particle surface reaction.

Number of Reactants   indicates the number of reactants in the specified reaction.

Species   contains drop-down lists of all species in the mixture. (The number of lists will be equal to the Number of Reactants.) Select each reactant in one of these lists.

Stoich. Coefficient   specifies the stoichiometric coefficient of the reactant species in the reaction.

Rate Exponent   specifies the rate constant for the reactant species in the reaction.

Number of Products   indicates the number of products in the specified reaction.

Species   contains drop-down lists of all species in the mixture. (The number of lists will be equal to the Number of Products.) Select each product in one of these lists.

Stoich. Coefficient   specifies the stoichiometric coefficient of the product species in the reaction.

Rate Exponent   specifies the rate constant for the product species in the reaction.

Arrhenius Rate   contains inputs related to the Arrhenius rate. (If you have chosen Eddy-Dissipation for the Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction in the Species Model panel, these inputs are not required.)

Pre-exponential Factor   is the constant $A_r$ in Equation  14.1-10. The units of $A_r$ depend on the other rate constant inputs, but must be defined such that the units of the reaction rate $R_{i,r}$ (Equation  14.1-5) are in (kg/m $^3$-s) if you are using SI units.

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It is important to note that if you have selected the British units system, the Arrhenius factor should still be input in SI units. This is because FLUENT applies no conversion factor to your input of $A_r$ (the conversion factor is 1.0) when you work in British units, as the correct conversion factor depends on your inputs for $\nu_{j,r}$, $\beta_r$, etc.

Activation Energy   is the constant $E_r$ in the forward rate constant expression, Equation  14.1-10).

Temperature Exponent   is the value for the constant $\beta_r$ in Equation  14.1-10.

Include Backward Reaction   specifies that the reaction is reversible. The backward reaction rate constant will be computed from Equation  14.1-11.

Third-Body Efficiencies   enables the input and use of third-body efficiencies ( $\gamma_{j,r}$ in Equation  14.1-9). These inputs are optional. (This item is available only if you have selected Volumetric for the Reaction Type.)

Pressure Dependent Reaction   enables the modeling of a pressure fall-off reaction. See Section  14.1.4 for details. (This option is available only if you have chosen Laminar Finite-Rate or EDC for the Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction in the Species Model panel and have selected Volumetric for the Reaction Type.)

Specify...   opens either the Reaction Parameters panel or the Pressure-Dependent Reaction panel, in which you can specify the third-body efficiencies or pressure-dependent reaction parameters.

Mixing Rate   contains inputs related to the mixing rate. (If you have chosen Laminar Finite-Rate or EDC for the Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction in the Species Model panel, these inputs are not required.)

A   is the constant $A$ in the turbulent mixing rate (Equations  14.1-26 and  14.1-27) when it is applied to a species that appears as a reactant in this reaction. The default setting of 4.0 is based on the empirically derived values given by Magnussen et al. [ 229].

B   is the constant $B$ in the turbulent mixing rate (Equation  14.1-27) when it is applied to a species that appears as a product in this reaction. The default setting of 0.5 is based on the empirically derived values given by Magnussen et al. [ 229].

Particle Surface Reaction   contains inputs related to a particle surface reaction. See Section  14.3.2 for details. (This section will appear only if you have selected Particle Surface for the Reaction Type.)

Diffusion Limited Species   is a drop-down list that allows you to select the species for which the concentration gradient between the bulk and the particle surface is the largest when there is more than one gaseous reactant taking part in the particle surface reaction. See Section  14.3.2 for details.

Diffusion Rate Constant   is the constant $C_{1,r}$ in Equation  14.3-6.

Effectiveness Factor   is the constant $\eta_r$ in Equation  14.3-4.



Reaction Parameters Panel


The Third-Body Efficiencies panel (opened by clicking on Specify... next to the Third-Body Efficiencies button in the Reactions panel) allows you to specify the third-body efficiencies for each species in the mixture, to be used in Equation  14.1-9. See Section  14.1.4 for details.

(Note that the Third-Body Efficiencies panel is a model panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.)

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Controls

Species   displays the name of each species in the mixture.

Third-body Efficiency   specifies the third-body efficiency for each species.



Pressure-Dependent Reaction Panel


The Pressure-Dependent Reaction panel (opened by clicking on Specify... under Pressure Dependent Reaction in the Reactions panel) allows you to specify parameters for a pressure fall-off reaction. See Section  14.1.4 for details.

(Note that the Pressure-Dependent Reaction panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.)

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Controls

Reaction Parameters   contains inputs for specifying the type of pressure fall-off reaction and the reaction parameters. See Section  14.1.1 for details.

Reaction Type   contains a drop-down list of the available reaction types: lindemann, troe, and sri. See Section  14.1.1 for details.

Bath Gas Concentration   allows you to specify if the bath gas concentration ( $[M]$ in Equation  14.1-18) is to be defined as the concentration of the mixture, or as the concentration of one of the mixture's constituent species.

Low Pressure Arrhenius Rate   contains inputs for specifying low-pressure Arrhenius parameters.

ln(Pre-exponential Factor)   is the natural logarithm of the constant $A_{\rm low}$ in Equation  14.1-16. The pre-exponential factor $A_{\rm low}$ is often an extremely large number, so you will input the natural logarithm of this term.

Activation Energy   is the constant $E_{\rm low}$ in Equation  14.1-16.

Temperature Exponent   is the constant $\beta_{\rm low}$ in Equation  14.1-16.

Troe parameters   contains inputs for specifying parameters for the Troe method. See Section  14.1.1 for details. (This section of the panel will appear only if you have selected troe as the Reaction Type.)

Alpha   is the constant $\alpha$ in Equation  14.1-23.

T1   is the constant $T_1$ in Equation  14.1-23.

T2   is the constant $T_2$ in Equation  14.1-23.

T3   is the constant $T_3$ in Equation  14.1-23.

SRI Parameters   contains inputs for specifying parameters for the SRI method. See Section  14.1.1 for details. (This section of the panel will appear only if you have selected sri as the Reaction Type.)

a   is the constant $a$ in Equation  14.1-24.

b   is the constant $b$ in Equation  14.1-24.

c   is the constant $c$ in Equation  14.1-24.

d   is the constant $d$ in Equation  14.1-24.

e   is the constant $e$ in Equation  14.1-24.



Reaction Mechanisms Panel

The Reaction Mechanisms panel (opened by clicking on the Edit... button next to Mechanism in the Materials panel) allows you to select the reaction mechanism at a particular zone. See Section  14.1.2 for details about these methods and the related inputs.

(Note that the Reaction Mechanisms panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.)

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Controls

Number of Mechanisms   specifies the number of mechanisms present.

Mechanism ID   is the ID of the mechanism that you specify.

Name   allows you to enter a name for the mechanism.

Reaction Type   specifies the type of reaction to be displayed for the mechanism.

Volumetric   displays all volumetric reactions under the Reactions list.

Wall Surface   displays all wall surface reactions under the Reactions list.

Particle Surface   displays all particle surface reactions under the Reactions list.

All   displays all types of reactions under the Reactions list.

Reactions   displays the list of reactions of the category specified under Reaction Type.

Number of Sites   specifies the number of sites at which you can specify the reaction.

Site Name   contains the name of the site.

Site Density   allows you to specify the site density of the species

Define...   opens the Site Parameters panel.



Site Parameters Panel


The Site Parameters panel (opened by clicking on the Define... button next to Site Density in the Reaction Mechanisms panel) allows you to define the coverage for each site species.

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Controls

Site Name   displays the name of site.

Total Number of Site Species   specifies the total number of site species.

Site Species   allows you to select the site species.

Initial Site Coverage   allows you to specify the initial coverage of the site species.



Mass Diffusion Coefficients Panel


The Mass Diffusion Coefficients panel (opened by clicking on the Edit... button next to Mass Diffusivity in the Materials panel) allows you to define the diffusion coefficients of the species in the mixture. Its contents will depend on the method you selected for Mass Diffusivity. See Section  8.9.4 for details about these methods and the related inputs.

(Note that the Mass Diffusion Coefficients panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.)

For the dilute-approx method:

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Controls

Species Di   contains a selectable list of all species in the mixture, from which you can select each species and specify its diffusion coefficient.

Coefficient   sets the diffusion coefficient for the selected species in the mixture.

For the multicomponent method:

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Controls

Species Di, Species Dj   contain selectable lists of species in the mixture, from which you can select each pair of species and specify the diffusion coefficient of the selected Species Di in the selected Species Dj.

Coefficient   sets the diffusion coefficient for Species Di in Species Dj (which is equivalent to the diffusion coefficient for Species Dj in Species Di).



Thermal Diffusion Coefficients Panel


The Thermal Diffusion Coefficients panel (opened by clicking on the Edit... button next to Thermal Diffusion Coefficient in the Materials panel) allows you to define the thermal diffusion coefficients of the species in the mixture. See Section  8.9.4 for details about these methods and the related inputs.

(Note that the Thermal Diffusion Coefficients panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.)

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Controls

Species Thermal Di   contains a selectable list of all species in the mixture, from which you can select each species and specify its thermal diffusion coefficient.

Coefficient   sets the thermal diffusion coefficient for the selected species in the mixture.



UDS Diffusion Coefficients Panel


The UDS Diffusion Coefficients panel (opened by selecting uds and clicking on the Edit... button next to UDS Diffusivity in the Materials panel) allows you to define the diffusion coefficients for your user-defined scalar transport equations.

(Note that the UDS Diffusion Coefficients panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.)

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Controls

User Defined Scalar Di   contains a selectable list of all user-defined scalars, from which you can select each one and specify its diffusion coefficient.

Coefficient   sets the diffusion coefficient for the selected user-defined scalar.



WSGGM User Specified Panel


The WSGGM User Specified panel allows you to set the path length for the WSGGM when you choose wsggm-user-specified as the input method for a composition-dependent Absorption Coefficient in the Materials panel. See Section  8.8 for details.

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Controls

Path Length   sets the path length for the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model.



Gray-Band Absorption Coefficient Panel


The Gray-Band Absorption Coefficient allows you to specify a different absorption coefficient in each gray band when you are modeling non-gray radiation with the DO model (see Sections  13.3.6 and 13.3.13). This panel will open when you select gray-band in the drop-down list next to Absorption Coefficient in the Materials panel.

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Controls

Band n   specifies the absorption coefficient for the $n$th gray band.



Delta-Eddington Scattering Function Panel


The Delta-Eddington Scattering Function panel allows you to define the parameters used in the Delta-Eddington phase function for radiation scattering. This panel will open when you select delta-eddington in the drop-down list next to Scattering Phase Function in the Materials panel. See Section  13.3.6 for details about the items below.

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Controls

Forward Scattering Factor   specifies the value of $f$ in Equation  13.3-46.

Asymmetry Factor   specifies the value of $C$ in Equation  13.3-46.



Gray-Band Refractive Index Panel


The Gray-Band Refractive Index allows you to specify a different refractive index in each gray band when you are modeling non-gray radiation with the DO model (see Sections  13.3.6 and 13.3.13). This panel will open when you select refractive-band in the drop-down list next to Refractive Index in the Materials panel.

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Controls

Band n   specifies the refractive index for the $n$th gray band.



Single Rate Devolatilization Panel


The Single Rate Devolatilization panel (which opens when you select single-rate as the Devolatilization in the Materials panel) allows you to input the parameters used in the single kinetic rate devolatilization model. See Section  22.9.2 for details.

Note that the Single Rate Devolatilization panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.

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Controls

Pre-exponential Factor   sets the value of $A_1$ in Equation  22.9-36 for the computation of the kinetic rate.

Activation Energy   sets the value of $E$ in Equation  22.9-36 for the computation of the kinetic rate.



Two Competing Rates Model Panel


The Two Competing Rates Model panel (which opens when you select two-competing-rates as the Devolatilization Model in the Materials panel) allows you to input the parameters used for each of the competing rates in the two-competing-rates devolatilization model. See Section  22.9.2 for details.

Note that the Two Competing Rates Model panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.

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Controls

First Rate   sets parameters for the first of the two rates.

Pre-exponential Factor   sets the value of $A_1$ in Equation  22.9-38 for the computation of the kinetic rate.

Activation Energy   sets the value of $E_1$ in Equation  22.9-38 for the computation of the kinetic rate.

Weighting Factor   sets the value of $\alpha_1$ in Equation  22.9-40

Second Rate   sets parameters for the second of the two rates.

Pre-exponential Factor   sets the value of $A_2$ in Equation  22.9-39 for the computation of the kinetic rate.

Activation Energy   sets the value of $E_2$ in Equation  22.9-39 for the computation of the kinetic rate.

Weighting Factor   sets the value of $\alpha_2$ in Equation  22.9-40



CPD Model Panel


The CPD Model panel (which opens when you select cpd-model as the Devolatilization Model in the Materials panel) allows you to input the parameters used in the CPD devolatilization model. See Section  22.9.2 for details.

Note that the CPD Model panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.

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Controls

Initial Fraction of Bridges in Coal Lattice   sets the value of $p_0$ in Equation  22.9-51.

Initial Fraction of Char Bridges   sets the value of $c_0$ in Equation  22.9-50.

Lattice Coordination Number   sets the value of $\sigma +1$ in Equation  22.9-62.

Cluster Molecular Weight   sets the value of $M_{w,1}$ in Equation  22.9-62.

Side Chain Molecular Weight   sets the value of $M_{w, \delta}$ in Equation  22.9-61.



Kinetics/Diffusion-Limited Combustion Model Panel


The Kinetics/Diffusion-Limited Combustion Model panel (which opens when you select kinetics/diffusion-limited as the Combustion Model in the Materials panel) allows you to input the parameters used for the kinetics/diffusion-limited rate surface combustion model. See Section  22.9.2 for details.

Note that the Kinetics/Diffusion-Limited Combustion Model panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.

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Controls

Mass Diffusion Limited Rate Constant   sets the value for $C_1$ in Equation  22.9-74.

Kinetics Limited Rate Pre-exponential Factor   sets the value for $C_2$ in Equation  22.9-75.

Kinetics Limited Rate Activation Energy   sets the value for $E$ in Equation  22.9-75.



Intrinsic Combustion Model Panel


The Intrinsic Combustion Model panel (which opens when you select intrinsic-model as the Combustion Model in the Materials panel) allows you to input the parameters used for the intrinsic surface combustion model. See Section  22.9.2 for details.

Note that the Intrinsic Combustion Model panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.

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Controls

Mass Diffusion Limited Rate Constant   sets the value for $C_1$ in Equation  22.9-74.

Kinetics Limited Rate Pre-exponential Factor   sets the value for $A_i$ in Equation  22.9-84.

Kinetics Limited Rate Activation Energy   sets the value for $E_i$ in Equation  22.9-84.

Char Porosity   sets the value for $\theta$ in Equation  22.9-81.

Mean Pore Radius   sets the value for $\overline{r}_p$ in Equation  22.9-83.

Specific Internal Surface Area   sets the value for $A_g$ in Equations  22.9-78 and 22.9-80.

Tortuosity   sets the value for $\tau$ in Equation  22.9-81.

Burning Mode, alpha   sets the value for $\alpha$ in Equation  22.9-85.



Material Panel


The Material panel contains the portion of the Materials panel that contains the properties for a specific material. It is opened from the Primary Phase panel, Secondary Phase panel, Wall panel, Fluid panel, or Solid panel.

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Controls

Properties of material-n   contains a list of the properties of material-n. The items in the list are the same as those in the Materials panel.

Change   applies any changes you have made to the properties of the material.



Fluent Database Materials Panel


The Fluent Database Materials panel contains the portion of the Fluent Database Materials panel that contains the properties for a specific material. It is opened from the Species Model panel.

  There are two panels with name Fluent Database Materials. The other panel opens up when you click the Fluent Database... button in the Materials panel.

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Controls

Database Properties of material-n   contains a list of the properties of material-n. The items in the list are the same as those in the Fluent Database Materials panel.


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