The
Define/Materials... menu item opens the
Materials panel.
Materials Panel
The
Materials panel is used to create and modify materials. Materials can be downloaded from the global database or defined locally. See Chapter
8 for details about defining material properties. Section
8.1.2 describes how to use the
Materials panel.
Controls
Name
shows the name of the material. If you edit this field, the new name will take effect when you click on
Change/Create.
Chemical Formula
displays the chemical formula for the material. You should generally not edit this field unless you are creating a material from scratch.
Material Type
is a drop-down list containing all of the available material types. By default,
fluid and
solid will be the only choices. If you are modeling species transport/combustion,
mixture will also be available. For problems in which you have defined discrete-phase injections,
inert-particle,
droplet-particle, and/or
combusting-particle will also appear.
Fluent Fluid Materials
allows you to choose the fluid material for which you want to modify properties. This option is available when
fluid is selected in the
Material Type drop-down list.
Fluent Solid Materials
allows you to choose the solid material for which you want to modify properties. This option is available when
solid is selected in the
Material Type drop-down list.
Fluent Mixture Materials
allows you to choose the mixture material for which you want to modify properties. This option is available when
mixture is selected in the
Material Type drop-down list.
Fluent Droplet Particle Materials
allows you to choose the droplet-particle for which you want to modify properties. This option is available when
droplet-particle is selected in the
Material Type drop-down list.
Order Materials By
allows you to order the materials in the
Materials list alphabetically by
Name or alphabetically by
Chemical Formula.
Fluent Database...
opens the
Fluent Database Materials panel, from where you can copy materials from the global database into the current solver.
User-Defined Database...
opens the
Open Database panel, where you can specify the user-defined database to be used.
Properties
contains input fields for the material properties that are required for the active physical models.
Density
sets the material density. You may set a constant value, or select one of the other methods from the drop-down list above the real number field. See Section
8.3 for instructions on setting density.
Cp
sets the constant-pressure specific heat of the material. You may set a constant value, or select one of the other methods from the drop-down list above the real number field. See Section
8.7 for instructions on setting specific heat.
Thermal Conductivity
sets the thermal conductivity of the material. You may set a constant value, or select one of the other methods from the drop-down list above the real number field. See Section
8.5 for instructions on setting thermal conductivity.
Viscosity
sets the viscosity of the material. You may set a constant value, or select one of the other methods from the drop-down list above the real number field. See Section
8.4 for instructions on setting viscosity.
Molecular Weight
sets the molecular weight of the material. It is used to derive the gas constant of the material.
Standard State Enthalpy
specifies the formation enthalpy of a fluid material for a reacting flow. See Section
8.10 for details.
Standard State Entropy
specifies the standard state entropy of a fluid material for a reacting flow. This input is used only if the fluid material is involved in a reversible reaction. See Section
8.11 for details.
Reference Temperature
specifies the reference temperature for the
Heat of Formation.
L-J Characteristic Length
specifies the kinetic theory parameter
for a fluid material. See Section
8.13 for details.
L-J Energy Parameter
specifies the kinetic theory parameter
for a fluid material. See Section
8.13 for details.
Absorption Coefficient
specifies the absorption coefficient
for radiation heat transfer. See Section
8.8 for details. If you choose the
wsggm-user-specified option from the drop-down list next to
Absorption Coefficient, the
WSGGM User Specified panel will open.
Scattering Coefficient
specifies the scattering coefficient
for radiation heat transfer (only for the P-1, Rosseland, or DO radiation model). See Section
8.8 for details.
Scattering Phase Function
specifies an
isotropic (by default) or
linear-anisotropic scattering function. If you are using the DO model,
delta-eddington and
user-defined scattering functions are also available. See Section
8.8 for details. If you choose
delta-eddington, the
Delta-Eddington Scattering Function panel will open.
Refractive Index
specifies the refractive index for the material. It is used only when semi-transparent media are modeled with the DO radiation model.
Mixture Species
specifies the names of the species that comprise a mixture material. To check or modify these names, click on the
Edit... button to open the
Species panel. This property appears only for mixture materials.
Reaction
displays the reaction mechanism being used when you are modeling finite-rate reactions.
finite-rate appears if
Laminar Finite-Rate or
EDC is selected in the
Species Model panel,
eddy-dissipation appears if
Eddy-Dissipation is selected, and
finite-rate/eddy-dissipation appears if
Finite-Rate/Eddy-Dissipation is selected.
Mechanism
allows you to enable different reactions selectively in different geometrical zones. Click the
Edit button to open the
Reaction Mechanisms panel. See Section
14.1.4 for details.
Mass Diffusivity
contains a drop-down list of available methods for specifying the diffusion coefficients for the species in a mixture material. If you select
constant-dilute-appx, you will enter a constant value in the field below. If you select
dilute-approx or
multicomponent, the
Mass Diffusion Coefficients panel will open, and you can specify the coefficients there. If you select
kinetic-theory, you will need to specify the kinetic theory parameters for the individual fluid materials (species) that comprise the mixture. See Section
8.9 for details about specifying mass diffusivity.
Thermal Diffusion Coefficient
contains a drop-down list of available methods for specifying the thermal diffusion coefficients for the species in a mixture material. If you select
kinetic-theory, you will need to specify the kinetic theory parameters for the individual fluid materials (species) that comprise the mixture. If you select
specified, the
Thermal Diffusion Coefficients panel will open, and you can specify the coefficients there. See Section
8.9.4 for details about specifying thermal diffusion coefficients.
Density of Unburnt Reactants
sets the density (
in Equation
16.2-24) of the unburnt products.
Temperature of Unburnt Reactants
sets the temperature (
in Equation
16.2-24) of the unburnt products.
Adiabatic Temperature of Burnt Products
(only for adiabatic premixed combustion models) specifies the value of the burnt products under adiabatic conditions,
in Equation
16.2-21.
Molecular Heat Transfer Coefficient
specifies the molecular heat transfer coefficient (
in Equation
16.2-4) for use with the premixed combustion model. See Chapter
16 for details.
Laminar Flame Speed
specifies the value of
in Equation
16.2-4.
Critical Rate of Strain
specifies the value of
in Equation
16.2-15.
Heat of Combustion
(only for non-adiabatic premixed combustion models) specifies the value of
in Equation
16.2-23.
Unburnt Fuel Mass Fraction
(only for non-adiabatic premixed combustion models) specifies the value of
in Equation
16.2-23.
Thermal Expansion Coefficient
specifies the thermal expansion coefficient (
in Equation
13.2-18) for use with the Boussinesq approximation.
See Section
13.2.5 for details.
Droplet Surface Tension
specifies the value of the droplet surface tension (
in Equation
22.8-19).
Latent Heat
is the latent heat of vaporization,
, required for phase change from an evaporating liquid droplet or for the evolution of volatiles from a combusting particle. See Section
22.14 for details.
Thermophoretic Coefficient
specifies the thermophoretic coefficient (
in Equation
22.2-14), and appears when the thermophoretic force is included in the discrete phase calculation.
Vaporization Temperature
is the temperature,
, at which the calculation of vaporization from a liquid droplet or devolatilization from a combusting particle is initiated by
FLUENT. See Section
22.14 for details.
Boiling Point
is the temperature,
, at which the calculation of the boiling rate equation is initiated by
FLUENT. See Section
22.14 for details.
Volatile Component Fraction
(
) is the fraction of a droplet particle that may vaporize via Laws 2 and/or 3 (Sections
22.9.2). For combusting particles, it is the fraction of volatiles that may be evolved via Law 4 (Section
22.9.2). See Section
22.14 for details.
Binary Diffusivity
is the mass diffusion coefficient,
, used in the vaporization law, Law 2. This input is also used to define the mass diffusion of the oxidizing species to the surface of a combusting particle,
. See Section
22.14 for details.
Saturation Vapor Pressure
is the saturated vapor pressure,
, defined as a function of temperature, which is used in the vaporization law, Law 2. See Section
22.14 for details.
Heat of Pyrolysis
is the heat of the instantaneous pyrolysis reaction,
, that the evaporating/boiling species may undergo when released to the continuous phase. The heat of pyrolysis should be input as a positive number for exothermic reaction and as a negative number for endothermic reaction. The default value of zero implies that the heat of pyrolysis is not considered. See Section
22.14 for details.
Degrees of Freedom
specifies the kinetic theory parameter
, which is the number of nodes of energy storage. This parameter is required only if you are defining specific heat via kinetic theory. See Section
8.13 for details.
Particle Emissivity
is the emissivity of particles in your model,
, used to compute radiation heat transfer to the particles when the P-1 or DO radiation model is active and particle radiation interaction is enabled in the
Discrete Phase Model panel. See Section
22.14 for details.
Particle Scattering Factor
is the scattering factor,
, due to particles in the P-1 or DO radiation model. Note that this property will appear only if particle radiation interaction is enabled in the
Discrete Phase Model panel. See Section
22.14 for details.
Swelling Coefficient
is the coefficient,
, which governs the swelling of the coal particle during the devolatilization law, Law 4. A swelling coefficient of unity (the default) implies that the coal particle stays at constant diameter during the devolatilization process. See Section
22.14 for details.
Burnout Stoichiometric Ratio
is the stoichiometric requirement,
, for the burnout reaction, in terms of mass of oxidant per mass of char in the particle. See Section
22.14 for details.
Combustible Fraction
is the mass fraction of char,
, in the coal particle, i.e., the fraction of the initial combusting particle that will react in the surface reaction, Law 5. See Section
22.14 for details.
React. Heat Fraction Absorbed by Solid
is the parameter
, which controls the distribution of the heat of reaction between the particle and the continuous phase. The default value of zero implies that the entire heat of reaction is released to the continuous phase. See Section
22.14 for details.
Heat of Reaction for Burnout
is the heat released by the surface char combustion reaction, Law 5. This parameter is input in terms of heat release (e.g., Joules) per unit mass of char consumed in the surface reaction. See Section
22.14 for details.
Devolatilization Model
defines which version of the devolatilization model, Law 4, is being used. If you want to use the default constant rate devolatilization model, retain the selection of
constant in the drop-down list to the right of
Devolatilization Model and input the rate constant
in the field below the list.
Choose
single-rate,
two-competing-rates, or
cpd-model in the drop-down list to activate one of the optional devolatilization models (the single kinetic rate model, two kinetic rates model, or CPD model, as described in Section
22.9.2).
Combustion Model
defines which version of the surface char combustion law (Law 5) is being used. If you want to use the default diffusion-limited rate model, retain the selection of
diffusion-limited in the drop-down list. No additional inputs are necessary, because the binary diffusivity defined above will be used in Equation
22.9-73.
To use the kinetics/diffusion-limited rate model for the surface combustion model, select
kinetics/diffusion-limited in the drop-down list and enter the parameters in the resulting
Kinetics/Diffusion-Limited Combustion Model panel.
To use the intrinsic model for the surface combustion model, select
intrinsic-model in the drop-down list and enter the parameters in the resulting
Intrinsic Combustion Model panel.
To use the multiple surface reactions model, select
multiple-surface-reactions in the drop-down list.
Melting Heat
specifies the latent heat for the melting and solidification model (
in Equation
24.2-3).
Solidus Temperature
specifies the solidus temperature for the melting and solidification model (
in Equation
24.2-3).
Liquidus Temperature
specifies the liquidus temperature for the melting and solidification model (
in Equation
24.2-3).
Melting Temperature
specifies the melting temperature of pure solvent (
in Equations
24.2-5 and
24.2-6) for the melting and solidification model when species transport has also been enabled. The solvent is the last species material of the mixture material.
Slope of Liquidus Line
specifies the slope of the liquidus surface with respect to the concentration of the solute fluid (
in Equations
24.2-5 and
24.2-6). It is not necessary to specify this value for the solvent. Note that this option is available only for the melting and solidification model when species transport has also been enabled.
Partition Coefficient
specifies the partition coefficient with respect to the concentration of the solute fluid (
in Equations
24.2-5 and
24.2-6). It is not necessary to specify this value for the solvent. Note that this option is available only for the melting and solidification model when species transport has also been enabled.
Diffusion in Solid
specifies the rate of diffusion in the solid. Note that this option is available only for the melting and solidification model when species transport has also been enabled.
UDS Diffusivity
specifies the diffusion coefficient for a user-defined scalar. This material property is available in the
Materials panel when you specify one or more user-defined scalars in the
User Defined Scalars panel.If you select
defined-per-uds, you will need to specify the diffusion coefficient for each user-defined scalar transport equation in the
UDS Diffusion Coefficients panel.
When you are viewing the database, additional properties may be displayed. However, after you copy the material to the local area, only the properties with relevance to the current problem will be displayed.
Change/Create
changes the properties of a locally-stored material or creates a new one in the local area. If no material with the specified
Name exists locally,
FLUENT will create it. If you have modified the material without changing its name,
FLUENT will simply update the material with your modifications. If you have assigned a new name to the material and a material with this name already exists locally, an error will be indicated; you must then specify a different name or delete the existing material with that name before trying to save the new material.
Delete
deletes the currently selected material from the local materials list. It has no effect on the global database.
Fluent Database Materials Panel
The
Fluent Database Materials panel is opened by clicking on the
Fluent Database... button in the
Materials panel. In this panel you can view the global (site-wide) material properties database and copy materials from this database to the local materials list in the solver. See Section
8.1.2 for details.
There are two panels with name
Fluent Database Materials. The other panel is opened from the
Species Model panel.
Controls
Fluent Fluid Materials
contains a list of all materials of the selected
Material Type that are defined in the database. The name of this list will change depending on the selected material type (e.g.,
fluid,
solid, etc.). You can select one or more of these materials to be copied to the solver.
Material Type
is a drop-down list containing all of the available material types. By default,
fluid and
solid will be the only choices. If you are modeling species transport/combustion,
mixture will also be available. For problems in which you have defined discrete-phase injections,
inert-particle,
droplet-particle, and/or
combusting-particle will also appear.
Order Materials By
allows you to order the materials in the
Materials list alphabetically by
Name or alphabetically by
Chemical Formula.
Properties
contains fields for the material properties that are defined for the selected material. These fields are for informational purposes only; they cannot be edited.
When you are viewing the database, not all properties displayed are relevant to your
FLUENT solution. After you copy the material, only properties with relevance to the current physical models will be displayed.
Copy
copies the current material from the global database to the local materials list in the solver.
Open Database Panel
The
Open Database panel is opened by clicking on the
User-Defined Database button in the
Materials panel.
Controls
Browse...
opens the
Select File dialog box where you can select the user-defined database to be used in the current solver session.
Database Name
allows to enter the path and name of a new database. If you select an existing database, this filed displays the path and name of the selected database.
User-Defined Database Materials Panel
The
User-Defined Database Materials panel is opened by clicking
OK in the
Open Database panel. In this panel you can view the user-defined material properties database and copy materials from this database to the local materials list in the solver. See Section
8.1.4 for details.
Controls
User-Defined Materials
contains a list of all materials of the selected
Material Type that are defined in the database. The name of this list will change depending on the selected material type (e.g.,
User-Defined Fluid Materials,
User-Defined Solid Materials, etc.). You can select one or more of these materials to copy to your local list or edit their properties.
Material Type
is a drop-down list containing all of the available material types.
Order Materials By
allows you to order the materials in the
User-Defined Materials list alphabetically by
Name or alphabetically by
Chemical Formula.
This panel is opened by clicking
Edit... button in the
Material Properties panel. See Section
8.1.3 for details.
Controls
Property Name
specifies the name of the property that you want to edit.
Available Properties
specifies the methods that can be used to define the selected property.
Material Properties
lists properties that you have selected from
Available Properties list.
Edit Properties
allows you to select the property that you want to edit.
New Material Name Panel
This panel is opened by clicking the
Copy button in the
User-Defined Database Materials panel when a material is already defined with the same name in the
Materials panel.
Controls
New Name
allows you to enter the new name for the material you need to copy.
New Formula
allows you to enter the new formula for the material you need to copy.
Polynomial Profile Panel
The
Polynomial Profile panel allows you to define a physical property as a polynomial function of temperature. This panel will open when you select
polynomial in the drop-down list next to a physical property in the
Materials panel. See Section
8.2.1 for details about the items below.
Controls
Define
shows the property that is being defined as a function of temperature.
In Terms of
shows the independent variable (
Temperature). The property shown in
Define will be defined as a polynomial function of temperature.
Coefficients
is an integer number entry that indicates the number of coefficients to be defined. You can define up to 8 coefficients.
Coefficients
contains real number entries for the number of coefficients set in the
Coefficients integer number entry above. The number of entries that are editable will be the same as the number of coefficients you requested.
Piecewise-Linear Profile Panel
The
Piecewise-Linear Profile panel allows you to define a physical property as a piecewise-linear function of temperature. This panel will open when you select
piecewise-linear in the drop-down list next to a physical property in the
Materials panel. See Section
8.2.2 for details about the items below.
Controls
Define
shows the property that is being defined as a function of temperature.
In Terms of
shows the independent variable (
Temperature). The property shown in
Define will be defined as a piecewise-linear function of temperature.
Points
indicates the number of data pairs that will define the piecewise distribution. You can define up to 30 pairs.
Data Points
contains entries for defining the data pairs.
Point
indicates the point for which the data pair (
Temperature,
Value) is being defined.
Temperature
is the independent variable.
Value
is the dependent variable (i.e., the property). In the example panel above,
Viscosity is the variable being defined, as shown in the
Define field.
Piecewise-Polynomial Profile Panel
The
Piecewise-Polynomial Profile panel allows you to define a physical property as a piecewise-polynomial function of temperature. This panel will open when you select
piecewise-polynomial in the drop-down list next to a physical property in the
Materials panel. See Section
8.2.3 for details about the items below.
Controls
Define
shows the property that is being defined as a function of temperature.
In Terms of
shows the independent variable (
Temperature). The property shown in
Define will be defined as a polynomial function of temperature.
Ranges
sets the number of temperature ranges for which you will define polynomial functions. You can define up to 3 ranges.
Range
indicates the temperature range for which you are defining the polynomial function.
Minimum, Maximum
set the minimum and maximum temperatures for the specified
Range.
Coefficients
is an integer number entry that indicates the number of coefficients to be defined for the specified
Range. You can define up to 8 coefficients.
Coefficients
contains real number entries for the number of coefficients set in the
Coefficients integer number entry above. The number of entries that are editable will be the same as the number of coefficients you requested for the specified
Range.
User-Defined Functions Panel
The
User-Defined Functions panel allows you to choose which user-defined function is to be used to define a material property. This panel will open when you select
user-defined in the drop-down list next to one of the
Properties in the
Materials panel. See the separate
UDF Manual for details about user-defined functions.
The list will contain all available user-defined functions.
Sutherland Law Panel
The
Sutherland Law panel allows you to set the coefficients for Sutherland's law for viscosity. This panel will open when you select
sutherland in the drop-down list next to
Viscosity in the
Materials panel. See Section
8.4.2 for details about the items below.
Controls
Methods
contains options for selecting the
Two Coefficient Method or the
Three Coefficient Method.
C1, C2
set the coefficients
and
in Equation
8.4-5 in SI units. These inputs will appear if you select the
Two Coefficient Method.
Reference Viscosity
sets the reference viscosity
in Equation
8.4-6. This input will appear if you select the
Three Coefficient Method.
Reference Temperature
sets the reference temperature
in Equation
8.4-6. This input will appear if you select the
Three Coefficient Method.
Effective Temperature
sets the effective temperature
in Equation
8.4-6. This input will appear if you select the
Three Coefficient Method.
Power Law Panel
The
Power Law panel allows you to set the coefficients for the power law for viscosity. This panel will open when you select
power-law in the drop-down list next to
Viscosity in the
Materials panel. See Section
8.4.2 for details about the items below.
Controls
Methods
contains options for selecting the
Two Coefficient Method or the
Three Coefficient Method.
B
sets the coefficient
in Equation
8.4-7 in SI units. This input will appear if you select the
Two Coefficient Method.
Reference Viscosity
sets the reference viscosity
in Equation
8.4-8. This input will appear if you select the
Three Coefficient Method.
Reference Temperature
sets the reference temperature
in Equation
8.4-8. This input will appear if you select the
Three Coefficient Method.
Temperature Exponent
sets the temperature exponent
in Equation
8.4-7 or
8.4-8, depending on your
Method selection. If you are using the
Two Coefficient Method, this input must be in SI units.
Non-Newtonian Power Law Panel
The
Non-Newtonian Power Law panel allows you to set the parameters for the non-Newtonian power law for viscosity. This panel will open when you select
non-newtonian-power-law in the drop-down list next to
Viscosity in the
Materials panel. See Section
8.4.5 for details about the items below.
Controls
Consistency Index
sets the consistency index
in Equation
8.4-19.
Power-Law Index
sets the power-law index
in Equation
8.4-19.
Reference Temperature
sets the reference temperature
in Equation
8.4-19.
Minimum Viscosity Limit, Maximum Viscosity Limit
set the minimum and maximum viscosity limits
and
in Equation
8.4-19.
Carreau Model Panel
The
Carreau Model panel allows you to set the parameters for the non-Newtonian Carreau model for viscosity. This panel will open when you select
carreau in the drop-down list next to
Viscosity in the
Materials panel. See Section
8.4.5 for details about the items below.
Controls
Time Constant, lambda
sets the time constant
in Equation
8.4-20.
Power-Law Index
sets the power-law index
in Equation
8.4-20.
Reference Temperature, T_alpha
sets the reference temperature
in Equation
8.4-20.
Zero Shear Viscosity, Infinite Shear Viscosity
set the zero and infinite shear viscosity limits
and
in Equation
8.4-20.
Activation Energy, alpha
sets the activation energy
in Equation
8.4-21.
Cross Model Panel
The
Cross Model panel allows you to set the parameters for the non-Newtonian Cross model for viscosity. This panel will open when you select
cross in the drop-down list next to
Viscosity in the
Materials panel. See Section
8.4.5 for details about the items below.
Controls
Zero Shear Viscosity
sets the zero shear viscosity limit
in Equation
8.4-22.
Power-Law Index
sets the power-law index
in Equation
8.4-22.
Time Constant
sets the time constant
in Equation
8.4-22.
Herschel-Bulkley Panel
The
Herschel-Bulkley panel allows you to set the parameters for the non-Newtonian Herschel-Bulkley model for viscosity. This panel will open when you select
herschel-bulkley in the drop-down list next to
Viscosity in the
Materials panel. See Section
8.4.5 for details about the items below.
Controls
Consistency Index
sets the consistency index
in Equation
8.4-24.
Power-Law Index
sets the power-law index
in Equation
8.4-24.
Yield Stress Threshold
sets the yield stress threshold
in Equation
8.4-24.
Yielding Viscosity
sets the yielding viscosity
in Equation
8.4-24.
Biaxial Conductivity Panel
The
Biaxial Conductivity panel allows you to define a biaxial orthotropic thermal conductivity, which is mainly applicable to solid materials used for the wall shell conduction model.. This panel will open when you select
biaxial in the drop-down list next to
Thermal Conductivity in the
Materials panel. See Section
8.5.5 for details about the items below.
Controls
Planar Conductivity
specifies the conductivity within the shell (or solid) region.
Transverse Conductivity
specifies the conductivity normal to the surface of the solid region.
Cylindrical Orthotropic Conductivity Panel
The
Cylindrical Orthotropic Conductivity panel allows you to define an orthotropic thermal conductivity in cylindrical coordinates. This panel will open when you select
cyl-orthotropic in the drop-down list next to
Thermal Conductivity in the
Materials panel. See Section
8.5.5 for details about the items below.
Controls
Axis Origin
allows you to specify the origin of the cylindrical coordinate system.
X, Y
specify the X, Y and Z (for three dimensional system) coordinates.
Axis Direction
(3D only) allows you to specify the direction of the axis.
X, Y
specify
1 against the direction of the axis.
Radial Conductivity
specifies the conductivity in the radial direction.
Tangential Conductivity
specifies the conductivity in the tangential direction.
Axial Conductivity
(3D only) specifies the conductivity in the axial direction.
Orthotropic Conductivity Panel
The
Orthotropic Conductivity panel allows you to define an orthotropic thermal conductivity for a solid material. This panel will open when you select
orthotropic in the drop-down list next to
Thermal Conductivity in the
Materials panel. See Section
8.5.5 for details about the items below.
Controls
Direction 0 Components, Direction 1 Components
specify the directions
and
in Equation
8.5-11 as
X,Y,Z vectors. For 2D cases, only
Direction 0 Components will appear.
Conductivity 0, Conductivity 1, Conductivity 2
specify
,
, and
in Equation
8.5-11 as
constant,
polynomial,
piecewise-linear, or
piecewise-polynomial functions of temperature. For 2D cases, only
Conductivity 0 and
Conductivity 1 will appear.
Edit...
opens the appropriate panel for input of a temperature-dependent conductivity. (This button will be unavailable if you specify a
constant conductivity.)
Anisotropic Conductivity Panel
The
Anisotropic Conductivity panel allows you to define a general anisotropic thermal conductivity. This panel will open when you select
anisotropic in the drop-down list next to
Thermal Conductivity in the
Materials panel. See Section
8.5.5 for details about the items below.
Controls
Matrix Components
specify the components of the matrix
in Equation
8.5-10.
Conductivity
specifies the value of
in Equation
8.5-10 as a
constant, or as a
polynomial,
piecewise-linear, or
piecewise-polynomial function of temperature.
Edit...
opens the appropriate panel for input of a temperature-dependent conductivity. (This button will be unavailable if you specify a
constant conductivity.)
Species Panel
The
Species panel (opened by clicking on the
Edit... button next to
Mixture Species in the
Materials panel) allows you to define the species that comprise a mixture material. See Section
14.1.4 for details about the items below.
(Note that the
Species panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.)
Controls
Mixture
shows the name of the mixture material for which you are defining the species. This field is not editable.
Available Materials
is a list of all of the materials that are available in local storage. You can choose any of these materials to be a component in the mixture material by selecting it and clicking on the
Add button below the
Selected Species or
Selected Surface Species list. To add a material to the
Available Materials list, use the
Fluent Database Materials panel to copy the fluid material to local storage.
Selected Species
is a list of all the fluid-phase species in the mixture. To add a material to the list, select it in the
Available Materials list and click on the
Add button below the
Selected Species list. To remove a material, select it in the
Selected Species list and click on
Remove. See Section
14.1.4 for more information.
Selected Solid Species
is a list of all the solid species in the mixture. To add a material to the list, select it in the
Available Materials list and click on the
Add button below the
Selected Solid Species list. To remove a material, select it in the
Selected Solid Species list and click on
Remove. See Section
14.1.4 for more information.
Selected Site Species
is a list of all the site species in the mixture. To add a material to the list, select it in the
Available Materials list and click on the
Add button below the
Selected Site Species list. To remove a material, select it in the
Selected Site Species list and click on
Remove. See Section
14.1.4 for more information.
Reactions Panel
The
Reactions panel (opened by clicking on the
Edit... button next to
Reaction Model in the
Materials panel) allows you to define the reactions that comprise a mixture material. See Section
14.1.4 for details about using this panel.
(Note that the
Reactions panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.)
Controls
Mixture
shows the name of the mixture material for which you are defining the species. This field is not editable.
Total Number of Reactions
sets the total number of reactions (fluid-phase reactions and surface reactions occurring at wall boundaries). Use the arrows to change the value, or type in the value and press
RETURN.
Reaction Name
contains the name of the reaction.
ID
sets the number of the reaction you want to define. (Again, if you type in the value be sure to press
RETURN.)
Reaction Type
contains options that allow you to specify the type of reaction.
Volumetric
specifies, if enabled, that the current reaction is a volumetric reaction.
Wall Surface
specifies, if enabled, that the current reaction is a wall surface reaction.
Particle Surface
specifies, if enabled, that the current reaction is a particle surface reaction.
Number of Reactants
indicates the number of reactants in the specified reaction.
Species
contains drop-down lists of all species in the mixture. (The number of lists will be equal to the
Number of Reactants.) Select each reactant in one of these lists.
Stoich. Coefficient
specifies the stoichiometric coefficient of the reactant species in the reaction.
Rate Exponent
specifies the rate constant for the reactant species in the reaction.
Number of Products
indicates the number of products in the specified reaction.
Species
contains drop-down lists of all species in the mixture. (The number of lists will be equal to the
Number of Products.) Select each product in one of these lists.
Stoich. Coefficient
specifies the stoichiometric coefficient of the product species in the reaction.
Rate Exponent
specifies the rate constant for the product species in the reaction.
Arrhenius Rate
contains inputs related to the Arrhenius rate. (If you have chosen
Eddy-Dissipation for the
Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction in the
Species Model panel, these inputs are not required.)
Pre-exponential Factor
is the constant
in Equation
14.1-10. The units of
depend on the other rate constant inputs, but must be defined such that the units of the reaction rate
(Equation
14.1-5) are in (kg/m
-s) if you are using SI units.
It is important to note that if you have selected the British units system, the Arrhenius factor should still be input in SI units. This is because
FLUENT applies no conversion factor to your input of
(the conversion factor is 1.0) when you work in British units, as the correct conversion factor depends on your inputs for
,
, etc.
Activation Energy
is the constant
in the forward rate constant expression, Equation
14.1-10).
Temperature Exponent
is the value for the constant
in Equation
14.1-10.
Include Backward Reaction
specifies that the reaction is reversible. The backward reaction rate constant will be computed from Equation
14.1-11.
Third-Body Efficiencies
enables the input and use of third-body efficiencies (
in Equation
14.1-9). These inputs are optional. (This item is available only if you have selected
Volumetric for the
Reaction Type.)
Pressure Dependent Reaction
enables the modeling of a pressure fall-off reaction. See Section
14.1.4 for details. (This option is available only if you have chosen
Laminar Finite-Rate or
EDC for the
Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction in the
Species Model panel and have selected
Volumetric for the
Reaction Type.)
Mixing Rate
contains inputs related to the mixing rate. (If you have chosen
Laminar Finite-Rate or
EDC for the
Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction in the
Species Model panel, these inputs are not required.)
A
is the constant
in the turbulent mixing rate (Equations
14.1-26 and
14.1-27) when it is applied to a species that appears as a reactant in this reaction. The default setting of 4.0 is based on the empirically derived values given by Magnussen et al. [
229].
B
is the constant
in the turbulent mixing rate (Equation
14.1-27) when it is applied to a species that appears as a product in this reaction. The default setting of 0.5 is based on the empirically derived values given by Magnussen et al. [
229].
Particle Surface Reaction
contains inputs related to a particle surface reaction. See Section
14.3.2 for details. (This section will appear only if you have selected
Particle Surface for the
Reaction Type.)
Diffusion Limited Species
is a drop-down list that allows you to select the species for which the concentration gradient between the bulk and the particle surface is the largest when there is more than one gaseous reactant taking part in the particle surface reaction. See Section
14.3.2 for details.
Diffusion Rate Constant
is the constant
in Equation
14.3-6.
Effectiveness Factor
is the constant
in Equation
14.3-4.
Reaction Parameters Panel
The
Third-Body Efficiencies panel (opened by clicking on
Specify... next to the
Third-Body Efficiencies button in the
Reactions panel) allows you to specify the third-body efficiencies for each species in the mixture, to be used in Equation
14.1-9. See Section
14.1.4 for details.
(Note that the
Third-Body Efficiencies panel is a model panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.)
Controls
Species
displays the name of each species in the mixture.
Third-body Efficiency
specifies the third-body efficiency for each species.
Pressure-Dependent Reaction Panel
The
Pressure-Dependent Reaction panel (opened by clicking on
Specify... under
Pressure Dependent Reaction in the
Reactions panel) allows you to specify parameters for a pressure fall-off reaction. See Section
14.1.4 for details.
(Note that the
Pressure-Dependent Reaction panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.)
Controls
Reaction Parameters
contains inputs for specifying the type of pressure fall-off reaction and the reaction parameters. See Section
14.1.1 for details.
Reaction Type
contains a drop-down list of the available reaction types:
lindemann,
troe, and
sri. See Section
14.1.1 for details.
Bath Gas Concentration
allows you to specify if the bath gas concentration (
in Equation
14.1-18) is to be defined as the concentration of the
mixture, or as the concentration of one of the mixture's constituent species.
ln(Pre-exponential Factor)
is the natural logarithm of the constant
in Equation
14.1-16. The pre-exponential factor
is often an extremely large number, so you will input the natural logarithm of this term.
Activation Energy
is the constant
in Equation
14.1-16.
Temperature Exponent
is the constant
in Equation
14.1-16.
Troe parameters
contains inputs for specifying parameters for the Troe method. See Section
14.1.1 for details. (This section of the panel will appear only if you have selected
troe as the
Reaction Type.)
SRI Parameters
contains inputs for specifying parameters for the SRI method. See Section
14.1.1 for details. (This section of the panel will appear only if you have selected
sri as the
Reaction Type.)
The
Reaction Mechanisms panel (opened by clicking on the
Edit... button next to
Mechanism in the
Materials panel) allows you to select the reaction mechanism at a particular zone. See Section
14.1.2 for details about these methods and the related inputs.
(Note that the
Reaction Mechanisms panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.)
Controls
Number of Mechanisms
specifies the number of mechanisms present.
Mechanism ID
is the ID of the mechanism that you specify.
Name
allows you to enter a name for the mechanism.
Reaction Type
specifies the type of reaction to be displayed for the mechanism.
Volumetric
displays all volumetric reactions under the
Reactions list.
Wall Surface
displays all wall surface reactions under the
Reactions list.
Particle Surface
displays all particle surface reactions under the
Reactions list.
All
displays all types of reactions under the
Reactions list.
Reactions
displays the list of reactions of the category specified under
Reaction Type.
Number of Sites
specifies the number of sites at which you can specify the reaction.
Site Name
contains the name of the site.
Site Density
allows you to specify the site density of the species
Define...
opens the
Site Parameters panel.
Site Parameters Panel
The
Site Parameters panel (opened by clicking on the
Define... button next to
Site Density in the
Reaction Mechanisms panel) allows you to define the coverage for each site species.
Controls
Site Name
displays the name of site.
Total Number of Site Species
specifies the total number of site species.
Site Species
allows you to select the site species.
Initial Site Coverage
allows you to specify the initial coverage of the site species.
Mass Diffusion Coefficients Panel
The
Mass Diffusion Coefficients panel (opened by clicking on the
Edit... button next to
Mass Diffusivity in the
Materials panel) allows you to define the diffusion coefficients of the species in the mixture. Its contents will depend on the method you selected for
Mass Diffusivity. See Section
8.9.4 for details about these methods and the related inputs.
(Note that the
Mass Diffusion Coefficients panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.)
For the
dilute-approx method:
Controls
Species Di
contains a selectable list of all species in the mixture, from which you can select each species and specify its diffusion coefficient.
Coefficient
sets the diffusion coefficient for the selected species in the mixture.
For the
multicomponent method:
Controls
Species Di, Species Dj
contain selectable lists of species in the mixture, from which you can select each pair of species and specify the diffusion coefficient of the selected
Species Di in the selected
Species Dj.
Coefficient
sets the diffusion coefficient for
Species Di in
Species Dj (which is equivalent to the diffusion coefficient for
Species Dj in
Species Di).
Thermal Diffusion Coefficients Panel
The
Thermal Diffusion Coefficients panel (opened by clicking on the
Edit... button next to
Thermal Diffusion Coefficient in the
Materials panel) allows you to define the thermal diffusion coefficients of the species in the mixture. See Section
8.9.4 for details about these methods and the related inputs.
(Note that the
Thermal Diffusion Coefficients panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.)
Controls
Species Thermal Di
contains a selectable list of all species in the mixture, from which you can select each species and specify its thermal diffusion coefficient.
Coefficient
sets the thermal diffusion coefficient for the selected species in the mixture.
UDS Diffusion Coefficients Panel
The
UDS Diffusion Coefficients panel (opened by selecting
uds and clicking on the
Edit... button next to
UDS Diffusivity in the
Materials panel) allows you to define the diffusion coefficients for your user-defined scalar transport equations.
(Note that the
UDS Diffusion Coefficients panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.)
Controls
User Defined Scalar Di
contains a selectable list of all user-defined scalars, from which you can select each one and specify its diffusion coefficient.
Coefficient
sets the diffusion coefficient for the selected user-defined scalar.
WSGGM User Specified Panel
The
WSGGM User Specified panel allows you to set the path length for the WSGGM when you choose
wsggm-user-specified as the input method for a composition-dependent
Absorption Coefficient in the
Materials panel. See Section
8.8 for details.
Controls
Path Length
sets the path length for the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model.
Gray-Band Absorption Coefficient Panel
The
Gray-Band Absorption Coefficient allows you to specify a different absorption coefficient in each gray band when you are modeling non-gray radiation with the DO model (see Sections
13.3.6 and
13.3.13). This panel will open when you select
gray-band in the drop-down list next to
Absorption Coefficient in the
Materials panel.
Controls
Band n
specifies the absorption coefficient for the
th gray band.
Delta-Eddington Scattering Function Panel
The
Delta-Eddington Scattering Function panel allows you to define the parameters used in the Delta-Eddington phase function for radiation scattering. This panel will open when you select
delta-eddington in the drop-down list next to
Scattering Phase Function in the
Materials panel. See Section
13.3.6 for details about the items below.
Controls
Forward Scattering Factor
specifies the value of
in Equation
13.3-46.
Asymmetry Factor
specifies the value of
in Equation
13.3-46.
Gray-Band Refractive Index Panel
The
Gray-Band Refractive Index allows you to specify a different refractive index in each gray band when you are modeling non-gray radiation with the DO model (see Sections
13.3.6 and
13.3.13). This panel will open when you select
refractive-band in the drop-down list next to
Refractive Index in the
Materials panel.
Controls
Band n
specifies the refractive index for the
th gray band.
Single Rate Devolatilization Panel
The
Single Rate Devolatilization panel (which opens when you select
single-rate as the
Devolatilization in the
Materials panel) allows you to input the parameters used in the single kinetic rate devolatilization model. See Section
22.9.2 for details.
Note that the
Single Rate Devolatilization panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.
Controls
Pre-exponential Factor
sets the value of
in Equation
22.9-36 for the computation of the kinetic rate.
Activation Energy
sets the value of
in Equation
22.9-36 for the computation of the kinetic rate.
Two Competing Rates Model Panel
The
Two Competing Rates Model panel (which opens when you select
two-competing-rates as the
Devolatilization Model in the
Materials panel) allows you to input the parameters used for each of the competing rates in the two-competing-rates devolatilization model. See Section
22.9.2 for details.
Note that the
Two Competing Rates Model panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.
Controls
First Rate
sets parameters for the first of the two rates.
Pre-exponential Factor
sets the value of
in Equation
22.9-38 for the computation of the kinetic rate.
Activation Energy
sets the value of
in Equation
22.9-38 for the computation of the kinetic rate.
Weighting Factor
sets the value of
in Equation
22.9-40
Second Rate
sets parameters for the second of the two rates.
Pre-exponential Factor
sets the value of
in Equation
22.9-39 for the computation of the kinetic rate.
Activation Energy
sets the value of
in Equation
22.9-39 for the computation of the kinetic rate.
Weighting Factor
sets the value of
in Equation
22.9-40
CPD Model Panel
The
CPD Model panel (which opens when you select
cpd-model as the
Devolatilization Model in the
Materials panel) allows you to input the parameters used in the CPD devolatilization model. See Section
22.9.2 for details.
Note that the
CPD Model panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.
Controls
Initial Fraction of Bridges in Coal Lattice
sets the value of
in Equation
22.9-51.
Initial Fraction of Char Bridges
sets the value of
in Equation
22.9-50.
Lattice Coordination Number
sets the value of
in Equation
22.9-62.
Cluster Molecular Weight
sets the value of
in Equation
22.9-62.
Side Chain Molecular Weight
sets the value of
in Equation
22.9-61.
Kinetics/Diffusion-Limited Combustion Model Panel
The
Kinetics/Diffusion-Limited Combustion Model panel (which opens when you select
kinetics/diffusion-limited as the
Combustion Model in the
Materials panel) allows you to input the parameters used for the kinetics/diffusion-limited rate surface combustion model. See Section
22.9.2 for details.
Note that the
Kinetics/Diffusion-Limited Combustion Model panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.
Controls
Mass Diffusion Limited Rate Constant
sets the value for
in Equation
22.9-74.
Kinetics Limited Rate Pre-exponential Factor
sets the value for
in Equation
22.9-75.
Kinetics Limited Rate Activation Energy
sets the value for
in Equation
22.9-75.
Intrinsic Combustion Model Panel
The
Intrinsic Combustion Model panel (which opens when you select
intrinsic-model as the
Combustion Model in the
Materials panel) allows you to input the parameters used for the intrinsic surface combustion model. See Section
22.9.2 for details.
Note that the
Intrinsic Combustion Model panel is a modal panel, which means that you must tend to it immediately before continuing the property definitions.
Controls
Mass Diffusion Limited Rate Constant
sets the value for
in Equation
22.9-74.
Kinetics Limited Rate Pre-exponential Factor
sets the value for
in Equation
22.9-84.
Kinetics Limited Rate Activation Energy
sets the value for
in Equation
22.9-84.
Char Porosity
sets the value for
in Equation
22.9-81.
Mean Pore Radius
sets the value for
in Equation
22.9-83.
Specific Internal Surface Area
sets the value for
in Equations
22.9-78 and
22.9-80.
Tortuosity
sets the value for
in Equation
22.9-81.
Burning Mode, alpha
sets the value for
in Equation
22.9-85.
There are two panels with name
Fluent Database Materials. The other panel opens up when you click the
Fluent Database... button in the
Materials panel.
Controls
Database Properties of material-n
contains a list of the properties of material-n. The items in the list are the same as those in the
Fluent Database Materials panel.