## 25.8.1 First-Order Accuracy vs. Second-Order Accuracy

When the flow is aligned with the grid (e.g., laminar flow in a rectangular duct modeled with a quadrilateral or hexahedral grid) the first-order upwind discretization may be acceptable. When the flow is not aligned with the grid (i.e., when it crosses the grid lines obliquely), however, first-order convective discretization increases the numerical discretization error (numerical diffusion). For triangular and tetrahedral grids, since the flow is never aligned with the grid, you will generally obtain more accurate results by using the second-order discretization. For quad/hex grids, you will also obtain better results using the second-order discretization, especially for complex flows.

In summary, while the first-order discretization generally yields better convergence than the second-order scheme, it generally will yield less accurate results, especially on tri/tet grids. See Section  25.22 for information about controlling convergence.

For most cases, you will be able to use the second-order scheme from the start of the calculation. In some cases, however, you may need to start with the first-order scheme and then switch to the second-order scheme after a few iterations. For example, if you are running a high-Mach-number flow calculation that has an initial solution much different than the expected final solution, you will usually need to perform a few iterations with the first-order scheme and then turn on the second-order scheme and continue the calculation to convergence. Alternatively, full multigrid initialization is also available for some flow cases which allow you to proceed with the second-order scheme from the start.

For a simple flow that is aligned with the grid (e.g., laminar flow in a rectangular duct modeled with a quadrilateral or hexahedral grid), the numerical diffusion will be naturally low, so you can generally use the first-order scheme instead of the second-order scheme without any significant loss of accuracy.

Finally, if you run into convergence difficulties with the second-order scheme, you should try the first-order scheme instead.

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